The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been recognized as a highly pathogenic virus to humans that infects the respiratory tract and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Studies in animal models suggest that MERS-CoV infection induces a strong inflammatory response, which may be related to the severity of disease. Data showing the cytokine profiles in humans during the acute phase of MERS-CoV infection are limited. In this study, we have analyzed the profile of cytokine responses in plasma samples from patients with confirmed MERS-CoV infections (n = 7) compared to healthy controls (n = 13). The cytokine profiles, including T helper (Th) 1, Th2 and Th17 responses, were analyzed using cytometric bead array (CBA). A prominent pro-inflammatory Th1 and Th17 response was clearly seen in patients with MERS-CoV infection, with markedly increased concentrations of IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-15 and IL-17 compared to controls. IL-12 expression levels showed no difference between patients with MERS-CoV infection and the healthy controls despite the significantly increased levels of IFN-α2 and IFN-γ (P < .01). No changes were observed in the levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and TGF-α (P > .05). Our results demonstrate a marked pro-inflammatory cytokine response during the acute phase of MERS-CoV infection in humans.
Background The contact-tracing COVID-19 technology allows for tracing people that come in contact to individuals with COVID-19 wherever they are located. The number of tracing COVID-19 infection technology and devices is rapidly increasing. This has prompted many researchers to study the acceptability and ethical issues related to the implementation of such technology. Aim The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability of COVID-19 contact-tracing technology and ethical issues of use. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was used. The target population was Jordanian adults (>18 years). The survey was distributed to a convenience sample of 2000 general public in Jordan. Results The results found that the number of people who accept to use COVID-19 contact-tracing technology was 71.6%. However, the percentage of people who were using this technology was 37.8. The main ethical concerns for many of participants were privacy, voluntariness, and beneficence of the data. Only income and living area were predictors for acceptability and use of tracing technology (p≤ 0.01). Conclusion The majority of Jordanians accept the implementation of contact-tracing technology for COVID-19 infection. Among ethical concerns of the implementation of such technology were privacy, beneficence and voluntariness. Implications The results of this study would help in improving the state of science regarding acceptability to use contact-tracing technology for health purposes. Moreover, the present findings provide evidence of predictors of acceptance and ethical concerns among Jordanian population about COVID-19 contact-tracing technology.
As the mechanisms for learning and memory are elucidated, modulation of learning and memory becomes a central issue. We studied the modulation of learning and memory by investigating the circadian regulation of short-and long-term sensitization of the siphon withdrawal reflex in Aplysia. We found that Aplysia exhibited diurnal and circadian rhythms of long-term sensitization (LTS) with significantly greater LTS occurring when animals were trained and tested during the day relative to those trained and tested at night. In contrast to the modulation of LTS, short-term sensitization was not regulated by the circadian clock. Time of training rather than time of testing determined the circadian rhythm of LTS. Animals trained during the subjective day demonstrated LTS when tested during either the day or the night. Conversely, when animals were trained during the night, LTS was not observed when animals were tested either at night or during the day. Thus, the circadian rhythm of LTS is a rhythm in learning rather than a rhythm in recall. The threshold required to elicit siphon withdrawal and the duration of siphon withdrawal were not regulated by the circadian clock. These results indicate that the circadian oscillator exerts strong modulatory influences on one form of long-term memory in Aplysia.H ow organisms learn has been of interest for centuries as people seek to understand and improve learning and memory abilities. One aspect of understanding learning and memory is determining how these processes are normally modulated. What conditions modulate learning and memory, and how does regulation occur? General health, motivation, age, stress, sleep patterns, and time of day may modulate learning and memory. The circadian clock regulates many behavioral and physiological processes, making it likely that circadian modulation of learning and memory also occurs (1).Circadian modulation of learning and memory has been investigated with varied results. Some studies have indicated time of day influences memory in humans (2-4), whereas other studies have found little impact of time of day on memory (5). Researchers studying hippocampus-dependent learning found that rats trained at midday showed decreased retention compared with animals trained earlier or later (6). However, other researchers found no time-of-day effects on multiple learning tasks (7). Furthermore, two laboratories studying contextual fear conditioning in mice reported different effects of the circadian clock on learning and memory (8, 9). The issue of circadian modulation of learning and memory remains to be determined.Indirect evidence for circadian modulation of learning and memory comes from in vitro studies of long-term potentiation. Researchers have documented diurnal and circadian differences in long-term potentiation in the hippocampus (10, 11). Additional studies have also found that excitability of CA3 neurons is regulated diurnally (12). Thus, some mechanisms exist for learning and memory to be rhythmic. Experiments demonstrating that consolidation ...
Background: Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has compelled implementing confinement measure across the globe. These measures can potentially lead to many changes in lifestyle. However, no studies examined the effect of COVID-19-induced confinement on physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Methods: During April and May of 2020, the current study surveyed changes in PA and SB induced by COVID-19 confinement. Results: The participants of the study were 1844. Among the participants who were regularly involved in PA, the majority (41.8-42.2%) of the participants reported a "decrease" (p<0.05) in walking, jogging, and sports while the majority (46.3-53.1%) reported a "no change" (p<0.05) in swimming, cycling, and weight lifting. With regard to the SB, most of the participants reported an "increase" in watching TV (72.3%), using electronics (82.7%), and logging to social media (81.9%). Additionally, gender, job type, obesity, and being worried to contract the disease were associated (p<0.05) with changes in PA. On the other hand, age, gender, obesity, job type and income were related (p<0.05) to changes in SB. Conclusion: Results of the current study might enhance knowledge about the impact of COVID-19 on lifestyle, particularly PA and SB. Subsequently, it can also be used to establish strategies to enhance engagement in activities during the current and future pandemics.
Context-Tobacco smoking represents a global public health threat, claiming approximately 5 million lives a year. Waterpipe tobacco use has become popular particularly among youth in the past decade, buttressed by the perception that the waterpipe "filters" the smoke, rendering it less harmful than cigarette smoke.Objective-In this study, we examined the acute exposure of waterpipe smoking on lung inflammation and oxidative stress in mice, and compared that to cigarette smoking.Materials and methods-Mice were divided into three groups; fresh air control, cigarette and waterpipe. Animals were exposed to fresh air, cigarette, or waterpipe smoke using whole body exposure system one hour daily for 7 days.Results-Both cigarette and waterpipe smoke exposure resulted in elevation of total white blood cell count, as well as absolute count of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes (P < 0.01). Both exposures also elevated proinflammatory markers such as TNF-α and IL-6 in BALF (P < 0.05), and oxidative stress markers including GPx activity in lungs (P < 0.05). Moreover, waterpipe smoke increased catalase activity in the lung (P < 0.05). However, none of the treatments altered IL-10 levels. Discussion and conclusion-Results of cigarette smoking confirmed previous finding. Waterpipe results indicate that, similar to cigarettes, exposure to waterpipe tobacco smoke is harmful to the lungs.
Water pipe tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in Jordan. Although use is associated with male gender and upper middle income levels, use is widespread across other sociodemographic variables. Continued surveillance and educational interventions emphasizing the harm and addictiveness of water pipe tobacco smoking may be valuable in Jordan.
The circadian clock modulates the induction of long-term sensitization (LTS) in Aplysia such that long-term memory formation is significantly suppressed when animals are trained at night. We investigated whether the circadian clock modulated core molecular processes necessary for memory formation in vivo by analyzing circadian regulation of basal and LTS-induced levels of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase (P-MAPK) and Aplysia CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (ApC/EBP). No basal circadian regulation occurred for P-MAPK or total MAPK in pleural ganglia. In contrast, the circadian clock regulated basal levels of ApC/EBP protein with peak levels at night, antiphase to the rhythm in LTS. Importantly, LTS training during the (subjective) day produced greater increases in P-MAPK and ApC/EBP than training at night. Thus, circadian modulation of LTS occurs, at least in part, by suppressing changes in key proteins at night. Rescue of long-term memory formation at night required both facilitation of MAPK and transcription in conjunction with LTS training, confirming that the circadian clock at night actively suppresses MAPK activation and transcription involved in memory formation.The circadian clock appears to modulate LTS at multiple levels. 5-HT levels are increased more when animals receive LTS training during the (subjective) day compared with the night, suggesting circadian modulation of 5-HT release. Circadian modulation also occurred downstream of 5-HT release because animals treated with 5-HT to induce LTS exhibited significantly greater LTS when treated during the (subjective) day compared with the night. Together, our studies suggest that the circadian clock modulates LTS at multiple steps and locations during the formation of long-term memory.
scite is a Brooklyn-based startup that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers