The cyp1a1ren-2 transgenic rat model allows for chronic dose-dependent titration of arterial pressure by a simple and non-invasive intervention, making this strain a useful model to study malignant and nonmalignant arterial hypertension. High circulating prorenin levels per se do not cause glomerulosclerosis.
Apocynin per se does not inhibit vascular NADPH-oxidase-dependent superoxide formation. Its in vitro vasodilator actions are not due to NADPH oxidase inhibition but may be explained at least in part by inhibition of Rho kinase activity. The discrepancy between apocynin-induced vasodilation in vitro and the failure of apocynin to lower arterial pressure in SHR suggests opposing effects on arterial pressure-regulating systems in vivo. Its use as a pharmacological tool to investigate vascular NADPH oxidase should be discontinued.
Increasing efferent renal sympathetic nerve activity (ERSNA) increases afferent renal nerve activity (ARNA), which in turn decreases ERSNA via activation of the renorenal reflexes in the overall goal of maintaining low ERSNA. We now examined whether the ERSNA-induced increases in ARNA are modulated by dietary sodium and the role of endothelin (ET). The ARNA response to reflex increases in ERSNA was enhanced in high (HNa)- vs. low-sodium (LNa) diet rats, 7,560 +/- 1,470 vs. 900 +/- 390%.s. The norepinephrine (NE) concentration required to increase PGE(2) and substance P release from isolated renal pelvises was 10 pM in HNa and 6,250 pM in LNa diet rats. In HNa diet pelvises 10 pM NE increased PGE(2) release from 67 +/- 6 to 150 +/- 13 pg/min and substance P release from 6.7 +/- 0.8 to 12.3 +/- 1.8 pg/min. In LNa diet pelvises 6,250 pM NE increased PGE(2) release from 64 +/- 5 to 129 +/- 22 pg/min and substance P release from 4.5 +/- 0.4 to 6.6 +/- 0.7 pg/min. In the renal pelvic wall, ETB-R are present on unmyelinated Schwann cells close to the afferent nerves and ETA-R on smooth muscle cells. ETA-receptor (R) protein expression in the renal pelvic wall is increased in LNa diet. In HNa diet, renal pelvic administration of the ETB-R antagonist BQ788 reduced ERSNA-induced increases in ARNA and NE-induced release of PGE(2) and substance P. In LNa diet, the ETA-R antagonist BQ123 enhanced ERSNA-induced increases in ARNA and NE-induced release of substance P without altering PGE(2) release. In conclusion, activation of ETB-R and ETA-R contributes to the enhanced and suppressed interaction between ERSNA and ARNA in conditions of HNa and LNa diet, respectively, suggesting a role for ET in the renal control of ERSNA that is dependent on dietary sodium.
Abstract-Angiotensin II (ANG) is known to facilitate catecholamine release from peripheral sympathetic neurons by enhancing depolarization-dependent exocytosis. In addition, a direct excitation by ANG of peripheral sympathetic nerve activity has recently been described. This study determined the significance of the latter mechanism for angiotensininduced catecholamine release in the pithed rat. Rats were anesthetized and instrumented for measuring either hemodynamics and renal sympathetic nerve activity or plasma catecholamine concentrations in response to successively increasing doses of angiotensin infusions. Even during ganglionic blockade by hexamethonium (20 mg/kg), angiotensin dose-dependently elevated sympathetic nerve activity, whereas blood pressure-equivalent doses of phenylephrine were ineffective. Independently of central nervous sympathetic activity and ganglionic transmission, angiotensin (0.1 to 1 g/kg) also induced an up-to 27-fold increase in plasma norepinephrine levels, reaching 2.65 ng/mL. Preganglionic electrical stimulation (0.5 Hz) raised basal norepinephrine levels 11-fold and further enhanced the angiotensin-induced increase in norepinephrine (4.04 ng/mL at 1 g/kg ANG). Stimulation of sympathetic nerve activity and norepinephrine release were suppressed by candesartan (1 mg/kg) or tetrodotoxin (100 g/kg), respectively. Angiotensin enhanced plasma norepinephrine, heart rate, and sympathetic nerve activity at similar threshold doses (0.3 to 1 g/kg), but raised blood pressure at a significantly lower dose (0.01 g/kg). It is concluded that direct stimulation of ganglionic angiotensin type 1 (AT 1 ) receptors arouses electrical activity in sympathetic neurons, leading to exocytotic junctional catecholamine release. In both the absence and presence of preganglionic sympathetic activity, this mechanism contributes significantly to ANG-induced enhancement of catecholamine release. Key Words: angiotensin II Ⅲ angiotensin antagonist Ⅲ catecholamines Ⅲ sympathetic nervous system Ⅲ electric stimulation Ⅲ rats A ngiotensin II (ANG) potently enhances catecholamine release from the peripheral sympathetic system, an action that implies important pathophysiological consequences. Catecholamines released by this mechanism contribute to the vasoconstricting and sodium-retaining properties of ANG. 1 In particular, the chronic effects of ANG at moderately elevated levels are promoted by adrenergic pathways that are significantly involved in the development of hypertension 2,3 and in the concomitant myocardial damage that has elsewhere been attributed to a stimulation of cardiac ␤-adrenoceptors. 4 ANG activates the sympathetic system via several mechanisms. Central nervous sympathetic tone is increased by circulating or locally produced ANG in nuclei responsible for autonomic control. 5 In the peripheral sympathetic system, the termini of adrenergic neurons are equipped with prejunctional angiotensin type 1 (AT 1 ) receptors whose activation enhances the efficacy of catecholamine discharge induced by each acti...
Elevated sympathetic activity changes renal function and accelerates the development of hypertension. Principles of sympatho-renal interactions in chronic hypertension are reviewed. Alterations in the ontogeny of the sympathetic nervous system and the kidney, inherited abnormalities in sensory receptor function and exaggerated responsiveness to mental stress contribute to inappropriately high sympathetic activity in primary or essential hypertension. Careful characterization of clinical study populations shows that elevated sympathetic activity and "essential" hypertension are not unequivocally associated. Prospective clinical studies which investigate a broader array of physiological functions and experiments in recombinant inbred rodents with less traumatic nerve recording techniques than currently available will help to define under which conditions elevated sympathetic activity is indeed a cause of primary hypertension. Signals arising from the kidney which activate the renin-angiotensin system and afferent renal nerves increase sympathetic activity. These mechanisms importantly contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension secondary to renal artery stenosis and end-stage renal disease.
The effects of neonatal sympathectomy of donors or recipients on posttransplantation arterial pressure were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) by renal transplantation experiments. Conscious mean arterial pressure (MAP) and renal vascular resistance were 136 +/- 1 mmHg and 15.5 +/- 1.2 mmHg x ml(-1) x min x g in sympathectomized SHR (n = 8) vs. 158 +/- 4 mmHg (P < 0.001) and 20.8 +/- 1.1 mmHg x ml(-1) x min x g (P < 0.05) in controls (n = 10). Seven weeks after transplantation of a kidney from neonatally sympathectomized SHR donors, MAP in SHR recipients (n = 10) was 20 mmHg lower than in controls transplanted with a kidney from hydralazine-treated SHR (n = 10) (P < 0.05) associated with reduced sodium sensitivity of MAP. Neonatal sympathectomy also lowered MAP in F1-hybrids (F1H; SHR x Wistar-Kyoto rats). Within 6 wk after transplantation, renal grafts from untreated SHR increased MAP by 20 mmHg in sympathectomized F1H (n = 10) and by 35 mmHg in sham-treated F1H (n = 8) (P < 0.05). Neonatal sympathectomy induces chronic changes in SHR kidney function leading to a MAP reduction even when extrarenal sympathetic tone is restored. Generalized reduction in sympathetic tone resets the kidney-fluid system to reduced MAP and blunts the extent of arterial pressure rise induced by an SHR kidney graft.
The colon ascendens stent peritonitis (CASP) procedure creates an intestinal leakage of feces, resulting in diffuse peritonitis and polymicrobial sepsis. Mouse models of CASP have been used to study sepsis experimentally. The aim of the present study was to establish CASP sepsis in rats and to provide basic functional characteristics of this model. In analogy to the mouse model, 3 degrees of severity of CASP sepsis, 2 sublethal and 1 lethal, were established depending on the stent diameter. Radio-telemetric recordings in a sublethal model showed that the nonsurvivors remained hemodynamically stable until approximately 1 h before death, when heart rate and blood pressure fell rapidly. Intestinal microcirculatory changes were analyzed 3, 6, 12, and 18 h after CASP surgery using intravital microscopy in a sublethal model. After 18 h, the numbers of the leukocytes firmly adhering to the endothelium and of the ones temporarily interacting were significantly increased. The levels of IL-6 and IL-1beta increased continuously during the CASP experiments while remaining unchanged in the sham group. TNF-alpha and IL-10 levels of CASP animals reached a maximum after 12 h. In conclusion, a rat model of CASP sepsis has been established and characterized with regard to alterations in cardiovascular and microcirculatory function as well as plasma cytokine levels. In experimental settings where genetically engineered animals are not required, it will facilitate detailed examination of dynamic changes in integrated organ function during the course of sepsis and the investigation of treatment strategies.
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