Pluteus and Volvopluteus are two closely related genera of Pluteaceae that comprise saprotrophic fungi. Although the genera have been well-studied in Europe, North and South America, the diversity of Pluteus, mainly Pluteus sect. Pluteus, and Volvopluteus in Turkey is poorly known due to insufficient morphological descriptions and a lack of DNA sequence data. In this study, the diversity of Pluteus sect. Pluteus and Volvopluteus in Turkey is evaluated by employing both morphological features and phylogenetic approaches. A general phylogeny of Pluteus sect. Pluteus based on sequences of nuc rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = ITS) region is presented and four species are given as new records for Turkey: P. brunneidiscus, P. hongoi, P. pellitus, and P. primus. According to the results of the multi-gene molecular analyses (ITS, 28S = nrLSU, and 18S = nrSSU datasets) of the genus Volvopluteus, the occurrence of Volvopluteus earlei is reported for the first time in Turkey. Besides, the ITS sequences data of the Turkish collections of P. atromarginatus, P. cervinus, P. kovalenkoi, P. petasatus, P. pouzarianus, P. salicinus, P. shikae, and ITS, 28S and 18S data for V. gloiocephalus are given for the first time. The detailed descriptions, colour photographs, and microscopic drawings of the newly recorded species are provided, and their comparisons with morphological and phylogenetically similar species are discussed.
In this study, three species of hypogeous fungi are reported in different regions of Anatolian peninsula. Of these, Hydnocystis piligera is presented as the first record of this genus for Turkish mycobiota, while Melanogaster variegatus and Octaviania asterosperma are given as new locality records for Turkey. Macroscopic and microscopic photographs along with description of the newly recorded taxa are presented.Provedenim istraživanjem zabilježene su tri vrste podzemnih gljiva u različitim regijama poluotoka Anatolija. Nalaz vrste Hydnocystis piligera predstavlja prvi nalaz ovoga roda za mikobiotu Turske, dok su vrste Melanogaster variegatus i Octaviania asterosperma zabilježene na novim lokalitetima u Turskoj. U radu se prikazuju makroskopske i mikroskopske fotografije zajedno s tekstualnim podacima o zabilježenim vrstama.
Twenty-six species from various sections of the genus Pluteus have been recorded from Turkey until now. In this study, phylogenetic analyses inferred from the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) were conducted for species delimitation and for comparisons with closely related taxa of Pluteus sect. Hispidoderma in Turkey. Our results show that P. granularis is recorded in Turkey and Europe for the first time, P. granulatus in Turkey for the first time and in Europe for the third time, P. umbrosoides in Turkey for the first time and in the world for the second time, and P. variabilicolor in Turkey for the first time. Also in this study, sequencing data for P. leoninus, P. plautus, P. roseipes, P. semibulbosus and P. umbrosus as well as the above-mentioned new records are presented for the first time from Turkey as a different geographical area. Analyses of the ITS showed that the lowest sequence divergence among in-group taxa was observed between P. semibulbosus and P. aff. semibulbosus 0.010% (SE = 0.004), the next was between P. chrysaegis and P. conizatus var. africanus 0.012% (SE = 0.004). The highest sequence divergence with in-group taxa was found between P. plautus and P. umbrosoides, 0.351% (SE = 0.039). In terms of habitat, Fagus orientalis is recorded as a new host for P. granulatus, P. granularis, P. umbrosoides, and P. umbrosus; Picea orentalis is a new host to P. granularis; Carpinus betulus for P. umbrosus; and the relict endemic Liquidambar orientalis for P. variabilicolor. Finally, this study provides detailed morphological descriptions, macro photographs and microstructure drawings relating to species of Pluteus sect. Hispidoderma from Turkey, which are rare, interesting and noteworthy. An identification key is provided for present species of Pluteus sect. Hispidoderma occurring in the country.
The study describes Hypomyces chrysosperum Tul. & C. Tul. as a new record for Turkey and Hypomyces (Fr.) Tul. & C. Tul. (Hypocreaceae) as a new genus record for Turkey. This fungicolous and mycoparasitic Ascomycota was collected in the Gireniz Valley (Denizli) growing parasitically on Suillus luteus (L.) Roussel. Descriptions of both the host and parasite fungi are given, together with macroscopic photographs and microscopic drawings.
In this study, in order to investigate the anticancer mechanism of Calvatia gigantea extract, edible mushroom species, which belong to Lycoperdaceae family, changes of CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, p21, Akt, Bax, Bcl-2, p53, caspase-3 and caspase-9 were evaluated in A549 lung cancer cells. Cytotoxic effect of C. gigantea extract was evaluated by using XTT (2,3-bis-(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5 carboxanilide). The C. gigantea extract was treated in a time and dose dependent manner within the range 25 μg/ml-2 mg/ml to determine the IC50 dose. IC50 dose for C. gigantea extract was detected as 500 μg/ml for 72 h. According to expression results, while CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, Akt and Bcl-2 expression clearly decreased, Bax, p53, caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression clearly increased in the dose group cells (A549 cells treated with 500 μg/ml dose of C. gigantea extract for 72 h). However, there was no change in p21 expression. C. gigantea extract induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by decreasing the CCND1, CCND2, CDK4, Akt and Bcl-2 expression and by increasing Bax, p53, caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression in A549 cells. Mushrooms are eukaryotic organisms heavily used because of their supposedly anticancer effect. Many mushroom species have been used for medical purposes, as a result of also having many effects such as antibiotic, antiviral and anticancer effects. It is thought that the C. gigantea extract may be a significant agent for treatment of lung cancer as a single agent or in combination with other drugs.
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