The second edition of Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity has been expanded with almost 300 new pages of material, making it the most comprehensive text on the biological growth, maturation, physical performance, and physical activity of children and adolescents. The new edition retains all the best features of the original text, including the helpful outlines at the beginning of each chapter that allow students to review major concepts. This edition features updates on basic content, expanded and modified chapters, and the latest research findings to meet the needs of upper undergraduate and graduate students as well as researchers and professionals working with children and young adults. The second edition also includes these new features: - 10 lab activities that encourage students to investigate subject matter outside of class and save teachers time - A complete reference list at the end of each chapter - Chapter-ending summaries to make the review process easy for students - New chapters that contain updates on thermoregulation, methods for the assessment of physical activity, undernutrition, obesity, children with clinical conditions, and trends in growth and performance - Discussions that span current problems in public health, such as the quantification of physical activity and energy expenditure, persistent undernutrition in developing countries, and the obesity epidemic in developed countries The authors are three of the world's foremost authorities on children's growth and development. In 29 chapters, they address introductory concepts and prenatal growth, postnatal growth, functional development, biological maturation, influencing factors in growth, maturation and development, and specific applications to public health and sport. In addition, secular trends in growth, maturation, and performance over the past 150 years are considered. You'll be able to recognize risk factors that may affect young athletes; you'll also be able to make informed decisions about appropriate physical activities, program delivery, and performance expectations. Growth, Maturation, and Physical Activity, Second Edition, covers many additional topics, including new techniques for the assessment of body composition, the latest advances in the study of skeletal muscle, the human genome, the hormonal regulation of growth and maturation, clarification of dietary reference intakes, and the study of risk factors for several adult diseases. This is the only text to focus on the biological growth and maturation process of children and adolescents as it relates to physical activity and performance. With over 300 new pages of material, this text expertly builds on the successful first edition.
OBJECTIVE:To investigate plantar pressure differences between obese and non-obese adults during standing and walking protocols using a pressure distribution platform. SUBJECTS: Thirty-five males (age 42.4 AE 10.8 y; 67 -179 kg) and 35 females (age 40.0 AE 12.6 y; 46 -150 kg) divided into obese (body mass index (BMI) 38.75 AE 5.97 kg=m 2 ) and non-obese (BMI 24.28 AE 3.00 kg=m 2 ) sub-groups, respectively. MEASUREMENTS: Data collection was performed with a capacitive pressure distribution platform with a resolution of 2 sensors=cm 2 (Emed F01, Novel GmbH, München). The measurement protocol included half and full body weight standing on the left, right and both feet, respectively, and walking across the platform, striking with the right foot. Pressures were evaluated for eight anatomical sites under the feet. RESULTS: For both men and women, the mean pressure values of the obese were higher under all anatomical landmarks during half body weight standing. Significant increases in pressure were found under the heel, mid-foot and metatarsal heads II and IV for men and III and IV for women. Foot width during standing was also significantly increased in obese subjects. For walking, significantly higher peak pressures were also found in both obese males and females. CONCLUSION: Compared to a non-obese group, obese subjects showed increased forefoot width and higher plantar pressures during standing and walking. The greatest effect of body weight on higher peak pressures in the obese was found under the longitudinal arch of the foot and under the metatarsal heads. The higher pressures for obese women compared to obese men during static weight bearing (standing) may be the result of reduced strength of the ligaments of the foot.
This study examined gender, disability type, age, and specific diagnostic category in relation to habitual physical activity levels (HPA), perceived fitness (PF), and perceived participation limitations (PPL) of youths, ages 6 to 20 years, in Ontario, Canada. Data collected through a mailed survey (Longmuir & Bar-Or, 1994) were reanalyzed using ANOVA and chi square statistics to provide new information. The 458 girls and 499 boys were classified by disability type: physical, chronic medical, visual, and hearing. Significant differences (p < .01) were between (a) HPA and disability type, specific diagnostic category, and age; (b) PF and disability type; and (c) PPL and disability type. Gender did not influence the results. Youths with cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, and visual impairment had the most sedentary lifestyles.
The purpose of the present study was to define the optimal loads (OL) for eliciting maximal power-outputs (PO) in the leg and arm modes of the 30s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Eighteen female and seventeen male physical education students, respectively 20.6 +/- 1.6 and 24.1 +/- 2.5 years old, volunteered to participate. In each of the total five sessions, the test was administered twice on a convertible, mechanically braked cycle-ergometer, once for the legs and once for the arms. The five randomized, evenly-spaced resistance loads ranged from 2.43 to 5.39 Joule per pedal revolution per kg body weight (B. W.) for the legs, and from 1.96 to 3.92 for the arms. The measured variables were mean (MP x kg-1) and peak PO as well as absolute and relative measures of fatigue. A parabola-fitting technique was employed to define the optimal loads from the MP x kg-1 data. The resulting OL were 5.04 and 5.13 Joule x Rev-1 x kg B.W.-1 in the leg and 2.82 and 3.52 in the arm tests for the women and men, respectively. OL were shown to depend on PO magnitude. However, within a two-load span (0.98 Joule x Rev-1 x kg B.W.-1) about the OL, MP x kg-1 did not vary by more than 1.4% in the leg and 2.2% in the arm tests. It is suggested that although the WAnT is rather insensitive to moderate variation in load assignment, improved results could be obtained by using the stated OL as guidelines that may be modified according to individual body build, composition, and, particularly, anaerobic fitness level.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether neural and/or muscular factors contributed to the inferior strength-related motor performances of obese adolescents. Subjects were 10 non-obese (14.6% fat) and 11 obese (32.3% fat) males matched for age (15-18 years), level of maturity (Tanner stages IV and V), lean body mass, and height. Peak torque (PT) was measured during maximal voluntary isometric (IS) and isokinetic (IK) knee extension (KE). Peak twitch torque (TT), time to peak torque (TPT), and half-relaxation time (HRT) of the knee extensors were elicited by percutaneous electrical stimulation. The interpolated twitch technique was used to determine the extent of motor unit activation (% MUA) during maximal voluntary IS KE. Knee extensor cross-sectional area (CSA) was determined by computed axial tomography taken at the mid-thigh. All strength and area measurements were made on the right side of the body. Obese subjects had significantly (P less than 0.05) lower maximal voluntary IS and IK KE strength normalized for body weight, and significantly lower % MUA during IS KE. There were no significant differences (P greater than 0.05) between groups for absolute or normalized (for the product of muscle CSA and height) ISPT, IKPT, and TT, knee extensor CSA, or TPT and HRT. These results suggest that reduced MUA and a lower strength per mass ratio (due to excess fat) are probably important contributing factors to the poorer motor performances of the obese, especially for complex motor tasks involving large muscle groups and the support or moving of body weight.
The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of a 20-m shuttle-run test as an aerobic fitness test for Japanese children, adolescents, and young adults. Participants were 62 boys and 70 girls aged 8–17 years and 56 men and 99 women aged 18–23 years. Stepwise regression analysis was used to elucidate the relationship between shuttle-run performance, age, gender, and anthropometric parameters (as independent variables) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), determined directly on a treadmill, as a dependent variable. We observed high multiple correlations for adults (R2 = .88) and for children and adolescents (R2 = .80). Therefore, it is suggested that our multiple regression equations are more appropriate for predicting VO2peak in Japanese children, adolescents, and adults.
91 +/- 14 beats.min-1). Thigh and lower leg muscle cocontraction accounted for 51.4% and 42.8%, respectively, of the variability in VO2 for the subjects with CP at 3 km.h-1. These results suggest that cocontraction is a major factor responsible for the higher energy cost of walking seen in children with CP.
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