a b s t r a c tIn this paper we propose an iterative method to calculate the largest eigenvalue of a nonnegative tensor. We prove this method converges for any irreducible nonnegative tensor. We also apply this method to study the positive definiteness of a multivariate form.
To our knowledge, the efficacy of combined probiotic supplementation with circuit training has not been evaluated. Thus, we investigated the effects of probiotic supplementation combined with circuit training on isokinetic muscular strength and power and cytokine responses in young males. Forty-eight healthy sedentary young males were recruited and randomised into 4 separate groups: sedentary placebo control, probiotics (P), circuit training with placebo (CT), and circuit training with probiotics (CTP). Participants in the CT and CTP groups performed circuit training 3 times/week with 2 circuits of exercises from weeks 1-8 followed by 3 circuits of exercises from weeks 9-12. Participants in the P and CTP groups consumed multi-strain probiotics containing 3 × 10 colony-forming units of Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. lactis, L. casei, Bifidobacterium longum, B. bifidum and B. infantis twice daily for 12 weeks. Measurements of body height and weight, blood pressure, resting heart rate, blood samples, and isokinetic muscular strength and power were carried out at pre- and post-tests. Isokinetic knee strength and power in CT and CTP groups were significantly higher (P < 0.05) at post-test. In addition, interleukin (IL)-10 concentration was significantly increased (P < 0.0001) at post-test in P and CT but a trend toward significant increase in CTP (P = 0.09). Nevertheless, there was no significant difference in IL-6. This study suggests that 12 weeks of circuit training alone and the combination of circuit training and probiotic consumption improved muscular performance while circuit training alone and probiotics alone increased IL-10 concentration.
An estuarine species of Nereididae (Annelida), Neanthesglandicincta (Southern, 1921) has been newly recorded on the eastern coast of Peninsular Malaysia located in the South China Sea based on 23 specimens collected from three estuaries (Tumpat, Kelantan Delta, Kelantan; Setiu Lagoon, Terengganu; Kuala Ibai, Terengganu). The morphological characteristics of the Malaysian specimens agree well with those of the previous original description and the redescription of N.glandicincta based on Indian, Myanmar and Singapore specimens. The number of paragnaths in all groups on the proboscis of our Malaysian specimens is within the range of the intraspecific variation of N.glandicincta as shown in the previous descriptions. An identification key to species of the Neanthesglandicincta species complex, which includes two morphologically similar species, is provided.
The objective of this study was to identify and analyse the hydration status and liver function of young men before and during Ramadan fasting (RF). The study design was a prospective cohort into 1 st period (one week before fasting) and 2 nd period (the last ten days of fasting). The subjects were 18 healthy young men (19-30 years old). Data on dietary intake were collected using food record 3x24h, body composition were collected using bioelectrical impedance analyser (BIA), hydration status, and liver function data were measured trough urine and blood sample. This study showed significant differences in body weight, fat body mass, body mass index (BMI), body water, intake of energy, protein, fat, carbohydrate, and water, hydration status (serum osmolality and urine density), and liver function (SGOT and SGPT levels) before and during RF (p<0.05). There were significant correlation between fasting status and SGPT levels (p<0.05). The study concluded that Ramadan fasting has a positive effect to control body weight and improve liver function measured by SGOT and SGPT levels.
<p class="0abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Covid-19 pandemic has changed the education landscape hence students’ learning experience. The conventional face-to-face classroom has transformed into a synchronous online mode with minimal digital readiness. In the immense situations during the acquisition of knowledge, their learning absorptive capacity may be disrupted. To unpick their learning proficiency and design complex interactivity, this paper considers a digital platform for structured learning activities. The study particularly examines how various factors are associated with students’ online learning experience, particularly during the pandemic. An online survey of 312 respondents who used the Blackboard online learning platform was conducted, and a PLS-SEM analysis indicated that an alternative assessment mediated the relationship of learning readiness, student engagement, and student motivation toward student learning experience simultaneously. Overall, our study reiterates the need to address the mediator role of alternative assessment to succeed in online courses.</span></p>
Tax compliance is a major concern among many governments in the world. The issue of tax compliance has long been discussed. Past studies have shown that there has always been a reluctance among taxpayers to pay taxes. From the works of literature, the small-scale sector is known to be a tough party when it comes to paying tax. Though the number of small and medium enterprises is growing, tax collection from this sector is still insignificant. Thus, this paper aims to determine factors affecting tax compliance among Malaysia"s Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) engaging in online businesses. The data was collected through interviews with six SMEs" owners that have e-commerce business activities. The results reveal that tax knowledge plays a vital role in influencing tax compliance among online companies in Malaysia. In addition, the respondents claimed that the Malaysian tax rules and regulations are too complex to understand, and the current corporate tax rate is too high and burdensome. This paper contributes to the literature in the area of taxation especially in Malaysia. Contribution/ Originality: This study provides more insights into the area of tax compliance and E-Commerce business. It is hope that this article will help other researchers and policy makers on the implementation of taxation towards online business company in Malaysia.
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