Cyclophosphamide, a cytotoxic alkylating agent, is an extensively used antineoplastic agent. Cardiotoxicity is considered as one of the limiting side effects of its use, which is attributed to oxidative stress. Zingiber officinale is powerful antioxidants against free radicals and oxidative attacks. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible protective effects of Z. officinale against cyclophosphamide induced cardio-toxicity in adult male albino rats. We used 30 adult male albino rats, divided into five groups; Group Ia (-ve control), Group Ib (+ve control), Group II (Z. officinale treated group; 200 mg/kg/day orally), Group III (cyclophosphamide treated group; single dose of 150 mg/kg I.P.), and Group IV (cyclophosphamide and Z. officinale treated group; rats received Z. officinale as before followed by single dose of cyclophosphamide (150 mg/kg)). At the end of experiment, we studied biochemical parameters: oxidative markers (MDA, GSH and Catalase), and Troponin i. The heart tissue was examined by light and electron microscope to evaluate histo-pathological changes and immunehistochemical technique for localization of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in the cytoplasm of cardiomyocytes. The result showed increase in troponin I and disturbance of oxidative markers in cyclophosphamide treated group compared to control groups. Whereas these results had significantly improved in cyclophosphamide and Z. officinale treated group. Light and electron microscopic examination revealed disruption in the heart tissue histo-architecture in cyclophosphamide group with strong positive cytoplasmic iNOS immunoreaction in numerous cardiomyocytes by histochemical examination unlike that in cyclophosphamide and Z. officinale treated group which returned near normal. In conclusion, cyclophosphamide has a cardiotoxic effect which can be prevented by Z. officinale supplementation. Further studies about cyclophosphamide toxic effect on the heart and about Z. officinale role in protection are recommended.
Background: Salivary gland diseases are induced by radiotherapy, autoimmune diseases, inflammation, trauma, and obstructive lesions. They result in functional gland impairment which harms oral health and quality of life. Exosomes are extracellular nanoparticles produced by a variety of cells including stem cells. Exosomes facilitate the paracrine functions of the releasing cells, and they are easily absorbed and can integrate with target cells resulting in long-lasting effects. Objective: To identify the therapeutic role of exosomes in the histological and biochemical changes in the submandibular gland (SMG) of adult male albino rats after duct ligation. Materials and methods: Forty adult male albino rats were included in this study. They were distributed in three main groups: control, duct-ligated and treated groups. Exosomes were isolated from the saliva of healthy rats. The treated group received salivary exosomes one week after duct ligation. At the end of the study, the SMG was removed from all groups and two samples were obtained from each gland: one for antioxidant measurement and RNA extraction with subsequent gene expression determination. The other was used for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Results:The ligated group revealed degenerative histological changes including vacuolated cytoplasm, apoptotic nuclei, congested blood vessels and cellular infiltrate. Increased area percentage of both collagen fibers and S100 immunoreactivity was detected. The treated group showed an amelioration in the histological and immunohistochemical picture. After treatment with exosomes, a significant increase in all antioxidants was recorded. This was accompanied by an increase in both c-kit and cytokeratin-5 gene expression. Conclusion: There were improved histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical alterations after treatment with salivary exosomes. So, salivary exosomes could be a possible modality in treating SMG diseases.
Background: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are one of metal nanoparticles that have widespread use in many fields. Objective: To investigate the effect of ZnONPs on cerebellar cortex of rats through histological and immunohistochemical study. Materials and methods: Thirty adult male albino rats were divided into three groups; group I (control), Group II (ZnONP-1 treated group) which received orally 50 mg/kg of ZnONP for two months and Group III (ZnONP-1I treated group) which received orally 200 mg/kg of ZnONP for two months. Specimens of the cerebellar cortex were processed for histological and immunohistochemical study. Morphometric and statistical analysis were carried out. Results: Group II showed Purkinje cells were crowded in many layers surrounded by perineuronal vacuoles and had pyknotic nuclei. They had cytoplasmic vacuoles and perinuclear Golgi apparatus revealed fragmented dilated cisternae. Nearby Bergmann astrocyte cells had highly vacuolated cytoplasm and the nerve fibers were also affected and showed dysmyleination (disrupted myelin sheath). Immunohistochemical study of the same group showed Purkinje cell cytoplasm had positive immunoreactions for calretinin proteins. In group III, there was a wide spread of neuronal affection to the degree of loss of many of Purkinje cells leaving empty spaces. Ultrastructurly, their cytoplasm appeared with multiple variable sized and had dilated mitochondria with disrupted cristae. The Bergmann astrocytes revealed nuclei with disrupted nuclear envelope and nearly absence their cytoplasmic organelle and there was more affection to the nerve fibers in the form of vacuolated axoplasm and demyelination (areas of myelin loss) beside dysmyleination. Immunohistochemical study of group III showed Purkinje cells cytoplasm with negative immunoreactions for calretinin proteins. Conclusion: Intake of ZnONPs induced various adverse alterations in the histological and immunohistochemical structures of cerebellar cortex indicating the occurrence of neurotoxicity. These changes were exaggerated with increasing the dose of their intake.
Background: Sofosbuvir is a nucleotide analog that has activity against all hepatitis c virus genotypes. Aim of work:The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effect of Sofosbuvir on the cornea of adult male albino rat. Materials and methods: Thirty five adult male albino rats were used in this experiment. Animals were divided into three groups; Group I control (negative and positive), Group II received Sofosbuvir orally by gastric tube at a dose of 4mg/kg per day for 5 weeks. Group III (Sovaldi and Chrysin treated), received SOV as in group II and Chrysin was given orally by a gastric tube, at a dose of 50 mg/kg once daily for 60 days. All rats were examined for histological study using Hematoxylin and Eosin and Mallory trichrome stains. Immunohistochemical expression for E-cadherin and Caspases-3 was performed. Morphometric and statistical analysis were also performed. Results: Examination of H&E stained sections of Sovaldi-treated cornea showed irregular upper free surface together with desquamation of surface epithelial cells. Bowman's layer was interrupted and separated. Stroma showed irregularly arranged collagen fibers and separated by wide spaces. Mallory trichrome stained-sections revealed disorganized collagen fibers. Immunohistochemically there was decrease of E-Cadherin expression and dramatically up-regulated expression of Caspases. Conclusion: Sofosbuvir have detrimental histological and immunohistochemical changes in cornea and Chrysin attenuate these changes.
Background: Chronic kidney disease is an international health problem for which renal fibrogenesis is the final treatment target. Objective: In our work, we highlighted two new strategies Nicorandil and Bone marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM-MSCs), effective in reversing renal fibrosis induced by partial unilateral ureteric obstruction (PUUO). Methods: The current study included 96 male albino rats randomly divided into four groups, with 24 rats per group: Group I, the control group; Group II, PUUO where two-thirds of the left ureter was entrenched in the psoas muscle; Group III, same surgical procedure as in Group II for 7 days, and then the rats received 15 mg/kg/day Nicorandil once daily for 21 days; and Group IV, same surgical procedure as in Group II for 7 days, and then rats were given 3 × 106 of labeled MSCs injected intravenous, then rats were left for 21 days. Blood and kidney tissues were collected for biochemical, histological, and molecular analysis. Results: Both the Nicorandil and BM-MSCs treatment groups could ameliorate kidney damage evidenced by inhibition of MDA elevation and total antioxidant capacity reduction caused by PUUO. Also, there was a significant reduction in TNF, TGF, IL6, collagen I, and α-SMA in addition to improvement in histological examination. However, there was a significant difference between the BM-MSCs and Nicorandil-treated groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that BM-MSCs and Nicorandil improved renal fibrosis progression through their antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory, and antifibrotic effects in male albino rats subjected to PUUO, with BM-MSCs being more effective compared to Nicorandil.
Background: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most eminent and commonly used nanoparticles in customer everyday products for both adults and children.Objective: This study objects to study the effect of prepubertal exposure of AgNPs on the histological structure of testis and the possible protective role of vitamin E. Materials and Methods: Twenty three days old juvenile male albino rats were used and divided into 3 groups. Group I control: subdivided into two subgroups: subgroup Ia (negative control), Rats received no treatment and sacrified at postnatal day (PND) 23 and 58. Subgroup Ib (vehicle control group), further subdivided into two subgroup Ib1, Ib2. Group II: subdivided into 2 subgroups: Subgroup IIa; rats treated with AgNPs intraperitoneally daily at dose of (50 μg /kg/day) for 35 days from 23 PND to 58 PND and Subgroup IIb; treated with AgNPs and vitamin E (vit. E) orally by gavage at a dose (150 mg /kg / day) dissolved in corn oil from age 23-58 PND, Group III; follow up group, rats received AgNPs left without treatment till 90 PND. Results: Testicular damage was also detected in AgNPs treated group as compared to the control group. Vit. E-treated subgroup and the follow up groups showed significant testicular improvement. A drastic decrease of testicular germinal epithelial height in AgNPs treated compared to control and vit. E treated rats. The expression of Bcl2 immunoreaction was also decreased in AgNPs-treated rats compared to the control and AgNPs and vit. E-treated groups. Conclusion: AgNPs induced structural changes on male reproductive system that can be ameliorated by Vit. E supplementation and limiting the exposure to the products rich in these particles.
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