Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the most frequently used host for commercial production of therapeutic proteins. However, their low protein productivity in culture is the main hurdle to overcome. Mild hypothermia has been established as an effective strategy to enhance protein specific productivity, although the causes of such improvement still remain unclear. The self-regulation of global transcriptional regulatory factors, such as Myc and XBP1s, seems to be involved in increased the recombinant protein production at low temperature. This study evaluated the impact of low temperature in CHO cell cultures on myc and xbp1s expression and their effects on culture performance and cell metabolism. Two anti-TNFα producing CHO cell lines were selected considering two distinct phenotypes: i.e. maximum cell growth, (CN1) and maximum specific anti-TNFα production (CN2), and cultured at 37, 33 and 31°C in a batch system. Low temperature led to an increase in the cell viability, the expression of the recombinant anti-TNFα and the production of anti-TNFα both in CN1 and CN2. The higher production of anti-TNFα in CN2 was mainly associated with the large expression of anti-TNFα. Under mild hypothermia myc and xbp1s expression levels were directly correlated to the maximal viable cell density and the specific anti-TNFα productivity, respectively. Moreover, cells showed a simultaneous metabolic shift from production to consumption of lactate and from consumption to production of glutamine, which were exacerbated by reducing culture temperature and coincided with the increased anti-TNFα production. Our current results provide new insights of the regulation of myc and xbp1s in CHO cells at low temperature, and suggest that the presence and magnitude of the metabolic shift might be a relevant metabolic marker of productive cell line.
Gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. Natural killer cells play an important role in the immune defense against transformed cells. They express the activating receptor NKG2D, whose ligands belong to the MIC and ULBP/RAET family. Although it is well established that these ligands are generally expressed in tumors, the association between their expression in the tumor and gastric mucosa and clinical parameters and prognosis of GC remains to be addressed. In the present study, MICA and MICB expression was analyzed, by flow cytometry, in 23 and 20 pairs of gastric tumor and adjacent non-neoplasic gastric mucosa, respectively. Additionally, ligands expression in 13 tumors and 7 gastric mucosa samples from GC patients were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The mRNA levels of MICA in 9 pairs of tumor and mucosa were determined by quantitative PCR. Data were associated with the clinicopathological characteristics and the patient outcome. MICA expression was observed in 57% of tumors (13/23) and 44% of mucosal samples (10/23), while MICB was detected in 50% of tumors (10/20) and 45% of mucosal tissues (9/20). At the protein level, ligand expression was significantly higher in the tumor than in the gastric mucosa. MICA mRNA levels were also increased in the tumor as compared to the mucosa. However, clinicopathological analysis indicated that, in patients with tumors >5 cm, the expression of MICA and MICB in the tumor did not differ from that of the mucosa, and tumors >5 cm showed significantly higher MICA and MICB expression than tumors ≤5 cm. Patients presenting tumors >5 cm that expressed MICA and MICB had substantially shorter survival than those with large tumors that did not express these ligands. Our results suggest that locally sustained expression of MICA and MICB in the tumor may contribute to the malignant progression of GC and that expression of these ligands predicts an unfavorable prognosis in GC patients presenting large tumors.
Abstract. Triatoma infestans is an important hematophagous vector of Chagas disease, a neglected chronic illness affecting approximately 6 million people in Latin America. Hematophagous insects possess several molecules in their saliva that counteract host defensive responses. Calreticulin (CRT), a multifunctional protein secreted in saliva, contributes to the feeding process in some insects. Human CRT (HuCRT) and Trypanosoma cruzi CRT (TcCRT) inhibit the classical pathway of complement activation, mainly by interacting through their central S domain with complement component C1. In previous studies, we have detected CRT in salivary gland extracts from T. infestans. We have called this molecule TiCRT. Given that the S domain is responsible for C1 binding, we have tested its role in the classical pathway of complement activation in vertebrate blood. We have cloned and characterized the complete nucleotide sequence of CRT from T. infestans, and expressed its S domain. As expected, this S domain binds to human C1 and, as a consequence, it inhibits the classical pathway of complement, at its earliest stage of activation, namely the generation of C4b. Possibly, the presence of TiCRT in the salivary gland represents an evolutionary adaptation in hematophagous insects to control a potential activation of complement proteins, present in the massive blood meal that they ingest, with deleterious consequences at least on the anterior digestive tract of these insects.
Background The production of recombinant proteins in mammalian cell lines is one of the most important areas in biopharmaceutical industry. Viral transcriptional promoters are widely used to express recombinant proteins in mammalian cell lines. However, these promoters are susceptible to silencing, thus limiting protein productivity. Some CpG islands can avoid the silencing of housekeeping genes; for that reason, they have been used to increase the production of recombinant genes in cells of animal origin. In this study, we evaluated the CpG island of the promoter region of the β-actin gene of Cricetulus griseous (Chinese hamster), associated to the Cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter, to increase recombinant antibodies production in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. Results We focused on the non-coding region of CpG island, which we called RegCG. RegCG behaved as a promoter, whose transcriptional activity was mainly commanded by the CAAT and CArG boxes of the proximal promoter. However, the transcription started mainly at the intronic region before the proximal transcription start site. While the CMV promoter was initially more powerful than RegCG, the latter promoter was more resistant to silencing than the CMV promoter in stable cell lines, and its activity was improved when combined with the CMV promoter. Thereby, the chimeric promoter was able to maintain the expression of recombinant antibodies in stable clones for 40 days at an average level 4 times higher than the CMV promoter. Finally, the chimeric promoter showed compatibility with a genetic amplification system by induction with methotrexate in cells deficient in the dihydrofolate reductase gene. Conclusions We have generated an efficient synthetic hybrid transcription promoter through the combination of RegCG with CMV, which, in stable cell lines, shows greater activity than when both promoters are used separately. Our chimeric promoter is compatible with a genetic amplification system in CHO DG44 cells and makes possible the generation of stable cell lines with high production of recombinant antibodies. We propose that this promoter can be a good alternative for the generation of clones expressing high amount of recombinant proteins, essential for industrial applications. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s13036-019-0187-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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