Techniques for faster arch replacement and controlled FET placement should be considered in order to reduce the early mortality and neurological complications after FET surgery. For distal aortic lesions, a two-staged approach is suggested, rather than the FET landing lower than T10.
The FET technique provides an effective treatment for AoD, promoting FL thrombosis and remodelling in the descending thoracic aorta. Changes in the diameter of the aortic lumen depend mainly on the status of the FL and are similar between acute and chronic AoD. Changes in the diameter of true lumen are affected by both the FL status and the timing of the presentation. However, increased FL thrombosis and positive remodelling rates are not maintained at the level of the abdominal aorta, and strict follow-up is mandatory to detect early changes in the aortic dimensions, which may warrant further interventions.
ObjectiveThis study assessed whether apolipoprotein CIII-lipoprotein(a) complexes (ApoCIII-Lp(a)) associate with progression of calcific aortic valve stenosis (AS).MethodsImmunostaining for ApoC-III was performed in explanted aortic valve leaflets in 68 patients with leaflet pathological grades of 1–4. Assays measuring circulating levels of ApoCIII-Lp(a) complexes were measured in 218 patients with mild–moderate AS from the AS Progression Observation: Measuring Effects of Rosuvastatin (ASTRONOMER) trial. The progression rate of AS, measured as annualised changes in peak aortic jet velocity (Vpeak), and combined rates of aortic valve replacement (AVR) and cardiac death were determined. For further confirmation of the assay data, a proteomic analysis of purified Lp(a) was performed to confirm the presence of apoC-III on Lp(a).ResultsImmunohistochemically detected ApoC-III was prominent in all grades of leaflet lesion severity. Significant interactions were present between ApoCIII-Lp(a) and Lp(a), oxidised phospholipids on apolipoprotein B-100 (OxPL-apoB) or on apolipoprotein (a) (OxPL-apo(a)) with annualised Vpeak (all p<0.05). After multivariable adjustment, patients in the top tertile of both apoCIII-Lp(a) and Lp(a) had significantly higher annualised Vpeak (p<0.001) and risk of AVR/cardiac death (p=0.03). Similar results were noted with OxPL-apoB and OxPL-apo(a). There was no association between autotaxin (ATX) on ApoB and ATX on Lp(a) with faster progression of AS. Proteomic analysis of purified Lp(a) showed that apoC-III was prominently present on Lp(a).ConclusionApoC-III is present on Lp(a) and in aortic valve leaflets. Elevated levels of ApoCIII-Lp(a) complexes in conjunction with Lp(a), OxPL-apoB or OxPL-apo(a) identify patients with pre-existing mild–moderate AS who display rapid progression of AS and higher rates of AVR/cardiac death.Trial registrationNCT00800800.
Background: Over the years, frozen elephant trunk (FET) has become the treatment of choice for multisegmental thoracic aortic disease. This multicenter study presents the evolution of FET results using the E-vita Open hybrid graft with respect to institutional experience and time. Methods: The data of International E-vita Open registry were studied according to the institutional experience of the participating centers (high-versus low-volume centers) and according to the evolution of FET treatment during time (1 st period, 2005-2011 versus 2 nd period, 2012-2018). Overall, 1,165 patients were enrolled in the study with a wide variety of multisegmental thoracic aortic pathologies and aortic emergencies. Participating centers determined their own surgical protocol. Results: The overall 30-day mortality was 12%. Short-and long-term survival were higher in high-versus low-volume centers (P=0.048 and P=0.013, respectively). In the 2 nd time period, cerebral complications were reduced significantly (P=0.015). Incidence of permanent spinal cord-related symptoms was reduced to 3% in the 2 nd time period, but did not reach statistical significance. Hypothermic circulatory arrest time (P<0.001) and incidence of postoperative temporary renal replacement therapy (P=0.008) were significantly reduced in the 2 nd time period. Ten-year survival and freedom from aortic-related death rates were 46.6% and 85.7%, respectively, for the entire group. The freedom from distal aortic re-interventions for a new or progressive residual aortic disease was 76.0%. Conclusions: Evolution of FET arch repair techniques with the E-vita Open graft and increasing institutional experience were associated with improved results. Progression of residual aortic disease makes close follow-up with aortic imaging mandatory in such patients.
Hybrid aortic repair using the FET in acute DeBakey type I aortic dissection does not elevate the perioperative risk of mortality and provides excellent aortic remodelling with low distal re-intervention rate in mid-term follow-up.
Median sternotomy is still the standard approach for aortic arch surgery. Minimally invasive techniques promise faster recovery with shorter hospital stay due to thoracic stability, reduced pain, and superior cosmetic results. However, safety is a concern in complex aortic surgery. The aim of our study was to demonstrate that aortic arch surgery via partial upper sternotomy is viable, safe, and equivalent to standard procedure both in terms of its safety and the risk of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events.
We interrogated our prospectively collected database and identified a total of 21 nonemergent patients operated on at our center between October 2008 and February 2015. Indication for operation was aneurysmatic disease in 18 and aortic dissection in 3 patients. Data were analyzed for in-hospital mortality, stroke, bleeding complications, and acute kidney injury.
Mean ± standard deviation age of patients was 69.3 ± 14.4 years, 57.1% were female, and mean ± standard deviation logistic EuroSCORE was 17.0 ± 7.2%. Surgery on the aortic arch comprised proximal arch in 9, hemiarch in 9, and total arch replacement plus frozen elephant trunk in 3 patients. Concomitant procedures included aortic root repair in 10, aortic root replacement in 2, and aortic valve replacement in 3 patients. We lost one patient because of septic shock, no stroke occurred, but a transient neurologic deficit in three and a postoperative delirium in four patients. Re-exploration for bleeding was necessary in two patients, and one patient had acute kidney injury.
Minimally invasive aortic arch surgery via partial upper sternotomy does not increase the risk of morbidity or mortality. Thus, in experienced hands, it is viable, safe, and therefore favorable and as a result should be offered to more patients.
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