Tendon tissue engineering based on stem cell differentiation has attracted a great deal of attention in recent years. Previous studies have examined the effect of cell-imprinted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate on induction differentiation in stem cells. In this study, we used tenocyte morphology as a positive mold to create a tenocyte-imprinted substrate on PDMS. The morphology and topography of this tenocyte replica on PDMS was evaluated with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. Then the tenogenic differentiation induction capacity of tenocytes replica in ADSCs was investigated and compared with other groups including tissue replica (Which was produced similar to the tenocyte replica and was evaluated by SEM), decellularized tendon, and BMP-12 as other potentially inducers. This comparison gives us an estimate of the ability of tenocyte-imprinted PDMS (which called cell replica in the present study) to induce differentiation compared to other inducers. For this reason ADSCs were divided into 5 groups including control, cell replica, tissue replica, decellularized tendon and BMP-12.ADSCs were seeded on each group seperately and investigated by real-time RT-PCR after 7 and 14 days. Our results showed that in spite of the higher effect of growth factor on tenogenic differentiation, cell replica can also induce tenocyte marker expression (Scleraxis and Tenomodulin) in ADSCs. Moreover, tenogenic differentiation induction capacity of cell replica was greater than tissue replica. Immunocytochemistry analysis revealed that ADSCs seeding on cell replica for 14 days led to Scleraxis and Tenomodulin expression at the protein level. Also, immunohistochemistry indicated that contrary to the promising results in vitro, there was little difference between ADSCs cultured on tenocyte-imprinted PDMS and untreated ADSCs. The results of such studies could lead to the production of inexpensive cell culture plates or biomaterials that can induce differentiation in stem cells without growth factors or other supplements.
Burn injuries have economical impacts on patients in several ways. Understanding the charges of burn treatment is very important for patients, families, governmental authorities, and insurance companies. During the protocol of their treatment, they may be admitted several times for treatment of acute burn and then for reconstructive treatments of burn's complications. Calculating the hospital burn charges can serve as an objective criteria for authorities to plan for a sufficient budget for acute burn treatment, for additional management for chronic complications, and as a guide for planning preventive and public educational programs. The authors used data of their burn registry program. During more than 3 years, the authors had 912 patients with multiple admissions for burns. All of hospital costs during several admissions were recorded. Men were 71% and women were 29% of the patients. Burns caused by flame were the most frequent (50.1%) followed by scald (34.0%). Mean hospital stay was 14.1 days (range, 0-64 days). Patients with TBSA equal to or less than 10% were 38.8%, TBSA between 11 and 22% were 29.1%, and TBSA more than 23% were 32.1%. Those who were admitted for 30 days or less were 34.1%, those between 31 and 131 days were 32.7%, and those with more than 132 days of admission were 33.2%. Mean hospital cost for all patients during the 3 years was about $2766 (range, from $143 to $33,566; median = 1586.93; SE = 93.84). The patients were admitted for treatment of acute burns and later admitted for reconstruction of the burn sequels. Total number of admissions was up to six times (median = 2). About 66.27% of the total charges were the cost of first admission, 19.39% the cost of second admission, 7.34% the cost of third admission, 3.56% for fourth admission, 2.3% for fifth admission, and 1.15% for last or sixth admission. The authors conducted a multiple linear regression test. Male sex, TBSA, length of stay, and number of admissions were significantly related to total treatment charges. But "age" did not influence the charges. Mean total cost of several burn admissions in one patient was around $2766. TBSA, length of stay, male sex, and number of admissions were significantly related to the hospital costs.
Prevention of infections is a very important issue in treating the burn wounds. The nanosilver dressings have many promising advantages, but absorption of silver ions and its adverse effects to the body were always a question. The aim of this study was to compare Silver serum levels and acute toxic effects of nanosilver on histopathology of organs (lungs, liver, kidney, spleen, and brain) in two types of AgiCoat and Acticoat (nanosilver) dressings on second-degree deep burn in rat. This is an experimental study conducted in our animal laboratory. We divided 24 Sprague–Dawley male rats weighing 300 to 350 randomly into two groups. After anesthesia, a second deep-degree burn was made over dorsal skins of rats by standard method. For group A, Agicoat and, for group B, Acticoat dressings were used. The dressings were changed every 3 days with AgiCoat and Acticoat, respectively. After 14 days, we got blood samples and tissue samples taken from heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, lungs, and brain and a sample from dorsal skin of the rat for histopathological examinations. The results showed that the levels of serum silver in both groups were significantly higher than the standard level (1.22 part per million (PM); AgiCoat, P = .017; Acticoat, P = .000), but there was no significant difference between the groups (P = .551). Examination of the relationship between the level of serum silver and histopathological changes in liver showed that hepatotoxicity of AgiCoat was higher compared with Acticoat and the difference was significant (P = .002). There were no pathological changes in brain, kidneys, spleen, heart, and lungs. Wound healing was faster in Acticoat group. The nanosilver dressings can cause toxicity in liver but not in kidney, brain, spleen, heart, and lungs. Liver pathology and hepatotoxicity were more prominent in AgiCoat group. Wound healing was faster in Acticoat group.
Unilateral BMF is reliable, promising, and safe flap for lengthening of short palate and it can lengthen the palate up to 19 mm. The time of surgery is very short compared with other methods. It is an anatomical treatment versus pharyngeal flap which is not an anatomical one. Speech improvement will achieve in 70% to 86% patients.
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