The association between coronaviruses and central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating lesions has been previously shown. However, no case has been described of an association between the novel coronavirus (SARS-COV-2) and CNS demyelinating disease so far. SARS-COV-2 was previously detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) sample of a patient with encephalitis. However, the virus identity was not confirmed by deep sequencing of SARS-COV-2 detected in the CSF. Here, we report a case of a patient with mild respiratory symptoms and neurological manifestations compatible with clinically isolated syndrome. The viral genome of SARS-COV-2 was detected and sequenced in CSF with 99.74-100% similarity between the patient virus and worldwide sequences. This report suggests a possible association of SARS-COV-2 infection with neurological symptoms of demyelinating disease, even in the absence of relevant upper respiratory tract infection signs.
BackgroundCardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death and disability in developed countries. In most cases, the progress of CVD is influenced by environmental factors and multifactorial inheritance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between APOE genotypes, cardiovascular risk factors, and a non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness in the Brazilian population.MethodsA total of 1493 urban Brazilian individuals were randomly selected from the general population of the Vitoria City Metropolitan area. Genetic analysis of the APOE polymorphism was conducted by PCR-RFLP and pulse wave velocity analyzed with a noninvasive automatic device.ResultsAge, gender, body mass index, triglycerides, creatinine, uric acid, blood glucose, blood pressure phenotypes were no different between ε2, ε3 and ε4 alleles. The ε4 allele was associated with higher total-cholesterol (p < 0.001), LDL-C (p < 0.001), total-cholesterol/HDL-C ratio (p < 0.001), LDL/HDL-C ratio (p < 0.001), lower HDL-C values (p < 0.001) and higher risk to obesity (OR = 1.358, 95% CI = 1.019-1.811) and hyperuricemia (OR = 1.748, 95% CI = 1.170-2.611). Nevertheless, pulse wave velocity (p = 0.66) measures were no different between genotypes. The significant association between APOE genotypes and lipid levels persisted after a 5-year follow-up interval, but no interaction between time and genotype was observed for lipids longitudinal behavior.ConclusionThe ε4 allele of the APOE gene is associated with a worse lipid profile in the Brazilian urban population. In our relatively young sample, the observed effect of APOE genotype on lipid levels was not translated into significant effects in arterial wall stiffness.
The reversible redox conversion of nitrite and nitric oxide (•NO) in a physiological setting is now widely accepted. Nitrite has long been identified as a stable intermediate of •NO oxidation but several lines of evidence support the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide in vivo. In the gut, this notion implies that nitrate from dietary sources fuels the longstanding production of nitrite in the oral cavity followed by univalent reduction to •NO in the stomach. Once formed, •NO boosts a network of reactions, including the production of higher nitrogen oxides that may have a physiological impact via the post-translational modification of proteins and lipids. Dietary compounds, such as polyphenols, and different prandial states (secreting specific gastric mediators) modulate the outcome of these reactions. The gut has unusual characteristics that modulate nitrite and •NO redox interplay: (1) wide range of pH (neutral vs acidic) and oxygen tension (c.a. 70 Torr in the stomach and nearly anoxic in the colon), (2) variable lumen content and (3) highly developed enteric nervous system (sensitive to •NO and dietary compounds, such as glutamate). The redox interplay of nitrite and •NO might also participate in the regulation of brain homeostasis upon neuronal glutamatergic stimulation in a process facilitated by ascorbate and a localized and transient decrease of oxygen tension. In a way reminiscent of that occurring in the stomach, a nitrite/•NO/ascorbate redox interplay in the brain at glutamatergic synapses, contributing to local •NO increase, may impact on •NO-mediated process.We here discuss the implications of the redox conversion of nitrite to •NO in the gut, how nitrite-derived •NO may signal from the digestive to the central nervous system, influencing brain function, as well as a putative ascorbate-driven nitrite/NO pathway occurring in the brain.
The encapsulation of bicyclic monoterpene α-pinene into solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) is reported using experimental factorial design, followed by high-end dispersion analyzer LUMiSizer®. This equipment allows the characterization of the α-pinene-loaded SLN instability phenomena (e.g., sedimentation, flotation or coagulation), as well as the determination of the velocity distribution in the centrifugal field and the particle size distribution. In this work, SLN were produced by hot high-pressure homogenization technique. The influence of the independent variables, surfactant and lipid ratio on the physicochemical properties of SLN, such as mean particle size (Z-Ave), polydispersity index (PDI) and zeta potential (ZP), was estimated using a 22-factorial design. The Z-Ave and PDI were analyzed by dynamic light scattering, while ZP measurements were recorded by electrophoretic light scattering. Based on the obtained results, the optimal SLN dispersion was composed of 1 wt.% of α-pinene, 4 wt.% of solid lipid (Imwitor® 900 K) and 2.5 wt.% of surfactant (Poloxamer 188), depicting 136.7 nm of Z-Ave, 0.170 of PDI and 0 mV of ZP. Furthermore, LUMISizer® has been successfully used in the stability analysis of α-pinene-loaded SLN.
The role of nitric oxide ( • NO) as a regulatory diffusible molecule in the brain requires the evaluation of its concentration dynamics. In this work, we have developed microelectrodes suitable for real time electrochemical measurements of • NO in vitro. Nafion and o-phenylenediamine were used to modify the surface of carbon fiber microelectrodes (8 m diameter; ≈100 m tip length). Coating with Nafion was done at 170 • C and the o-phenylenediamine solution was electropolimerized on the carbon surface. • NO peak potential (+0.78 ± 0.03 V versus Ag/AgCl) was determined by square wave voltammetry with • NO solutions prepared from the-generating compound diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide (DETA/NO). Microelectrodes were calibrated by amperometry at a potential of +0.90 V versus Ag/AgCl. They showed good sensitivity (954 ± 217 pA/M; n = 6) and linearity to • NO in the concentration range of 100-1000 nM. They were also characterized in terms of detection limit (6 ± 2 nM, n = 4), response time at 50% (1 s), and selectivity against interferents, such as nitrite (780 ± 84:1, n = 6), ascorbic acid (750 ± 187:1, n = 6) or dopamine (18 ± 2:1, n = 6). Injections of 1 mM l-glutamate, 1 mM l-arginine, and 0.1 mM N-methyl-d-aspartate did not produce changes in background current. Finally, the microelectrodes were used to measure • NO concentration dynamics in rat hippocampal brain slices stimulated with l-glutamate and N-methyl-d-aspartate. Taken together, the data indicate that the microelectrodes exhibit the proper sensitivity and selectivity for studies of • NO dynamics in brain slices (in vitro) and possibly in whole brain (in vivo) recordings.
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