In addition to their antibiotic effects, tetracyclines have anti-inflammatory action that is often beneficial in the control of inflammatory skin disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of tetracycline (TET) and two of its derivatives, doxycycline (DOX) and minocycline (MIN), on the production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) elicited by the activation of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK). In NHEK, the production of IL-8 stimulated by an agonist peptide of PAR2, SLIGKIV-NH 2 , at 100 M was significantly reduced by TET, DOX, or MIN at 5 and 10 M, concentrations that are noncytotoxic. The tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-␣)-induced production of IL-8 was synergistically augmented by SLIGKIV-NH 2 , and that synergistic increase in the production of IL-8 was suppressed by 100 nM PAR2-specific small interfering RNA. It was also suppressed by TET, DOX, or MIN but not by the 14-membered-ring macrolide antibiotics erythromycin, roxithromycin, and clarithromycin, which also have anti-inflammatory activities, at 10 M. These results suggest that tetracyclines attenuate the PAR2-IL-8 axis in keratinocytes and thereby effectively modulate proinflammatory responses in the skin.
Protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a G protein-coupled receptor which mediates a variety of functions in the skin including cutaneous inflammation. SLIGKV-NH(2) , an agonist peptide for PAR2, enhanced the interleukin (IL)-17-induced production of two CXC chemokines, CXCL1 (GRO-α) and CXCL8 (IL-8), in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) in a concentration-dependent manner. The enhanced production of those chemokines was suppressed by a PAR2-specific siRNA. The SLIGKV-NH(2) -induced production of both CXCL1 and CXCL8 was markedly reduced by cyclosporine A. The enhanced production of CXCL1 was suppressed by 1α, 24R-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) , an active form of vitamin D(3) , and weakly by glucocorticoids, dexamethasone and clobetasol propionate, whereas production of CXCL8 was not altered by any of those receptor agonists. In psoriatic skin, the thickened upper spinous layer of the epidermis was positive for PAR2 protein and the expression of the IL17A mRNA was increased. These results suggest that the IL-17-induced pro-inflammatory reaction is enhanced by the activation of PAR2 in keratinocytes, and that the effect of PAR2 is differentially modulated by cyclosporine A, the active form of vitamin D(3) and glucocorticoids.
Pneumatosis intestinalis (PI) is an uncommon disorder defined as multiple foci of gas within the intestinal wall. Despite recognition of an increasing number of cases of PI, the optimal management strategy, whether through surgical or other means, remains controversial. The present report describes the case of a patient with PI who underwent exploratory laparotomy without specific findings and who ultimately died due to extensive intestinal hemorrhage that was possibly triggered by surgery.
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