Background and Aims:Hypotension following spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section is common in spite of adequate fluid loading. Phenylephrine is the recommended drug to treat spinal hypotension during caesarean section. Recently, norepinephrine boluses are being suggested as an alternative to phenylephrine boluses. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of bolus doses of norepinephrine with phenylephrine to treat spinal hypotension during caesarean section.Methods:Fifty patients undergoing elective caesarean section under spinal anaesthesia were randomly assigned into two groups. Group P patients received phenylephrine 50 μg as an intravenous bolus and group N received 4 μg of norepinephrine as intravenous bolus to treat spinal hypotension. The primary objective of our study was to compare the number of bolus doses of norepinephrine or phenylephrine required to treat spinal hypotension. The secondary objectives were to compare the incidence of bradycardia, hypertension, nausea and vomiting in mother and foetal outcomes.Results:The number of boluses of vasopressors required to treat hypotension was significantly lower in group N (1.40 ± 0.577 vs. 2.28 ± 1.061, P = 0.001). The frequency of bradycardia was high in group P, but this difference was not statistically significant (4%vs. 20%, P = 0.192). Maternal complications such as nausea and vomiting and shivering were comparable between the groups. The foetal parameters were also comparable between the two groups.Conclusion:Intermittent boluses of norepinephrine are effective in the management of spinal-induced hypotension during caesarean section. The neonatal outcomes were similar in both the groups. Norepinephrine boluses can be considered as an alternative to phenylephrine boluses.
Context:Establishing a near perfect surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) is essential and even a minor bleeding can severely compromise an already restricted view. So, if controlled hypotension can be provided without compromising the safety of patient by a relatively effortless method, surgical field can be improved greatly.Aims:The aim of this study was to compare the hemodynamic changes and surgical conditions during FESS following oral premedication with clonidine and metoprolol.Settings and Design:A total of 40 patients undergoing FESS were included in this prospective, randomized controlled study.Subjects and Methods:Patients were divided into two equal groups. Group A patients were premedicated with oral clonidine 300 mcg and Group B with oral metoprolol 50 mg, 2 h before surgery. All patients received fentanyl 2 mcg/kg and induced with propofol 2 mg/kg. Intubation was done following vecuronium 1 mg/kg. Anesthesia was maintained with 66% N2O, 33% O2 and 1% isoflurane. The heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured before induction and thereafter every 15 min up to 2 h. The surgeons were asked to estimate the quality of the operative field using a pre-defined category scale with scores 1-5.Statistical Analysis:Difference within the groups was analyzed using analysis of variance and post-hoc test was used to test the difference between individual groups. Chi-square test was used to find out the association between categorical variables.Results:Comparison of category scale revealed a lower score in Group A up to 60 min. Group B patients showed a statistically lower HR from pre-induction up to 90 min while systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) and mean arterial pressure did not show a significant difference.Conclusions:Oral premedication with 300 mcg of clonidine produced a better operative field than oral metoprolol 50 mg during FESS.
Background and Aims:The practice of avoiding sedatives or anxiolytics during caesarean section under general anaesthesia (GA) until delivery of the baby could result in exaggerated haemodynamic responses and an increased risk of awareness. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of low-dose ketamine, used as an adjunct analgesic and amnesic, in attenuating these responses during caesarean section under GA.Methods:This prospective, randomised study was conducted in 40 patients. Group K (n = 20) received 0.25 mg/kg ketamine, whereas Group C received 5 ml normal saline intravenously (IV) just before induction of anaesthesia. After intubation, patients were ventilated with O2 and N2O (40:60%) with 0.7% end-tidal isoflurane. Fentanyl and midazolam were given following delivery of the baby. Mann–Whitney and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis.Results:Preinduction haemodynamic parameters and those recorded at 1 min after induction were comparable in both groups. However, heart rate and systolic blood pressure recorded after intubation (at 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 15, 20, 30 and 45 min after induction) showed significantly high values in Group C (P < 0.05). Mean arterial pressure also showed a similar pattern. Umbilical vein pO2, pCO2 and pH were comparable in both groups. Though Apgar score at 1 min showed a higher scoring in Group K, at 5 min both groups had comparable scores. In Group C, intraoperative lacrimation (50% vs. 0%) and hallucinations/recall of intraoperative events (10% vs. 0%) were high.Conclusion:IV ketamine 0.25 mg/kg can be safely used as an adjunct analgesic and amnesic to attenuate haemodynamic responses during caesarean section under GA without affecting the foetal outcome.
Context:Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a very common complaint following tracheal intubation. Although it resolves spontaneously, efforts must be taken to reduce it.Aims:This study aims to compare the effect of cuff inflation using manometer versus conventional technique on the incidence of POST. Secondary objectives were to assess the incidence postoperative hoarseness and cough.Settings and Design:A total of 120 patients were included in this prospective observational comparative study.Subjects and Methods:After approval from the hospital ethics committee, consenting American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status Class I and II patients, scheduled for gynecologic laparoscopic surgery under general anesthesia, were included. They were randomly allocated by closed envelope technique to either Group A where the cuff pressure was adjusted to 25 cmH2O using a manometer or Group B where cuff inflation was guided clinically. Patients were monitored for sore throat, hoarseness of voice, and cough postoperatively.Statistical Analysis Used:To calculate the incidence of sore throat, hoarseness, and cough, descriptive statistics were applied. For checking association of sore throat and cuff pressure, Chi-square test and for comparing numerical values independent sample t-test were applied.Results:The incidence of POST was significantly less in Group A than in B (P < 0.001) up to 24 h. Incidence of hoarseness was less in Group A and incidence of cough was higher in Group B, but these differences were not statistically significant.Conclusion:Cuff inflation guided by manometer significantly reduces the incidence of POST.
Background and Aims: Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly infectious disease and healthcare workers are at constant risk for contracting it. Nowadays, aerosol box is used in conjunction with WHO-recommended safety kits, to avoid health workers from getting SARS-CoV-2 infection during aerosol-generating procedures. In our study, we compared the ease of oral intubation with C-MAC video laryngoscope and direct laryngoscopy, when the aerosol box was used. The secondary objectives were to compare the incidence of airway loss, haemodynamic changes, number of attempts, and time required for intubation between these two techniques. Methods: This prospective randomised controlled study was conducted on 60 non-coronavirus disease (COVID) patients presenting for elective surgery under general anaesthesia. Patients were randomly assigned into two groups:C and D using a computer-generated random sequence of numbers by closed envelope technique. In group D, laryngoscopy was performed with Macintosh blade and in group C, with Storz® C-MAC video laryngoscope. Results: The ease of intubation was better (grade 1) in group C than D (68.6% vs. 31.4% respectively) with a P value of < 0.001. 10% of patients required more than one intubation attempt in group D compared to none in group C, but this difference was not statistically significant. The intubation time was comparable between the two groups. There were no incidences of loss of airway or failure to intubate in both groups. Conclusion: The use of C-MAC video-laryngoscopy resulted in easier orotracheal intubation as compared to intubation with direct laryngoscopy when the aerosol box was used.
Background:Facial nerve monitoring, often required during total parotidectomy, precludes use of long acting muscle relaxants and propofol infusion is used solely to ensure patient immobility. We aimed to compare intraoperative patient immobility, hemodynamic stability and propofol consumption during total parotidectomy following a transtracheal block.Material and Methods:Forty patients were allocated to 2 equal groups. Preoperatively, group A patients received transtracheal block with 4 ml of 4% lidocaine, while no block was given to patients in group B. If there was patient movement, tachycardia or hypertension, group A patients received a bolus of propofol 30 mg and propofol infusion was started (100mg/hr). In group B, propofol infusion was started (100mg/hr) soon after intubation.Result:Both group A and B were comparable with respect to patient immobility and hemodynamic stability. There was no intraoperative propofol requirement in group A.Conclusion:Transtracheal block is a safe and successful alternative to propofol infusion during surgeries where muscle relaxants are to be avoided.
Background and Aims:Transverse abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used regularly as part of multimodal analgesia for caesarean sections and other lower abdominal surgeries. Adequate postoperative analgesia provided with regional blocks allows faster postoperative recovery and better patient satisfaction. In our study, we are comparing the analgesic efficacy of laparoscopic-guided TAP block with port infiltration using a local anaesthetic in patients undergoing gynaecologic robotic surgeries.Methods:After obtaining approval from the hospital ethics committee, Central Trial Registry of India (CTRI) clearance and written informed consent from patients, this prospective double-blinded randomised control trial was conducted on patients undergoing robotic-assisted gynaecologic surgery under general anaesthesia. Group B patients received bilateral TAP block under direct laparoscopic vision with 15 ml of 0.1% ropivacaine on each side and Group C patients received routine port site infiltration with 30 ml of 0.1% ropivacaine. Postoperative pain score was measured till 24 hours, need for rescue analgesics, complications associated were noted. Independent two sample 't' test, Mann Whitney u test, Chi-square and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical analysis.Results:Pain score was significantly lower in Group B patients up to 24h (P < 0.001). The use of rescue analgesic was also significantly less in group B compared to Group C (P < 0.001). No adverse events were noted in both groups.Conclusion:Laparoscopic-guided TAP block is effective and superior to port site infiltration in providing postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing robotic-assisted gynaecologic surgery.
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