There is an urgent need to enhance agricultural production as well as productivity to meet the food demand of the growing population, estimated to be 10 billion by 2050, using a holistic and sustainable approach. The daily food sources for almost three-fourth of the global population, cereals and millets, are prone to several biotic factors and abiotic pressures. In particular, cereals and millet cultivation are limited by the polyphagous pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens Walker (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) gaining national importance, since its larvae and pupae are concealed within the stem, none of the management measures have been found effective in controlling the menace. However, host plant resistance (HPR) is a reasonable and ecologically safe method wherein resistance mechanisms of crops could lower the stem borer infestation. The foremost challenge in understanding the mechanism would be to detecting the genes of interest in the crop using novel biotechnological approaches. The fundamental criterion for developing insect-resistant lines relies on recognizing the mechanism of plant resistance. The entire life cycle of this group of borers is completed or hidden within the stem, posing a hurdle in their management. Thus, molecular markers and Quantitative Trait Locus (QTL) mapping offer a more efficient approach to entomologists and plant breeders wherein they can work with traits like QTLs for stem borer resistance. In this review, an attempt has been made to provide an extensive summary of the host range and crop losses due to this borer, besides its taxonomic position, geographic distribution, bionomics, genetics of resistance, and molecular perspectives.
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