BackgroundHypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) maybe an important regulatory factor for angiogenesis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Our study aimed to investigate the effect of HIF-1α on angiogenic potential of SCLC including two points: One is the effect of HIF-1α on the angiogenesis of SCLC in vivo. The other is the regulation of angiogenic genes by HIF-1α in vitro and in vivo.MethodsIn vivo we used an alternative method to study the effect of HIF-1a on angiogenic potential of SCLC by buliding NCI-H446 cell transplantation tumor on the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) surface. In vitro we used microarray to screen out the angiogenic genes regulated by HIF-1a and tested their expression level in CAM transplantation tumor by RT-PCR and Western-blot analysis.ResultsIn vivo angiogenic response surrounding the SCLC transplantation tumors in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) was promoted after exogenous HIF-1α transduction (p < 0.05). In vitro the changes of angiogenic genes expression induced by HIF-1α in NCI-H446 cells were analyzed by cDNA microarray experiments. HIF-1α upregulated the expression of angiogenic genes VEGF-A, TNFAIP6, PDGFC, FN1, MMP28, MMP14 to 6.76-, 6.69-, 2.26-, 2.31-, 4.39-, 2.97- fold respectively and glycolytic genes GLUT1, GLUT2 to2.98-, 3.74- fold respectively. In addition, the expression of these angiogenic factors were also upregulated by HIF-1α in the transplantion tumors in CAM as RT-PCR and Western-blot analysis indicated.ConclusionsThese results indicated that HIF-1α may enhance the angiogenic potential of SCLC by regulating some angiogenic genes such as VEGF-A, MMP28 etc. Therefore, HIF-1α may be a potential target for the gene targeted therapy of SCLC.
MicroRNAs (abbreviated miRNAs) have been demonstrated to be involved in tumorigenesis and cancer development and proposed as promising biomarkers in cancer diagnosis. Numerous studies have observed the aberrant expression of miRNAs in esophageal cancer. However, there are some discrepant results. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to identify the overall accuracy of miRNAs in the diagnosis of esophageal cancer. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed and other databases using combinations of key words. The summary receiver operator characteristic curves were plotted to assess the overall diagnostic performance of miRNAs. Chi-squared and I(2) tests were used to assess the heterogeneity between studies. Additionally, we conducted subgroup and sensitivity analyses to analyze the potential sources of heterogeneity. In total, 33 studies from 12 articles were available in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio (PLR, NLR) diagnostic odds ratio, and area under the curve were 0.80, 0.80, 4.0, 0.25, 16, and 0.87, respectively. Subgroup analyses based on the sample types (saliva-, serum- and plasma-based) showed no differences in the diagnostic accuracy of each subgroup. An independent meta-analysis of eight articles was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of miRNAs in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, with a pooled sensitivity of 0.77, specificity of 0.83, PLR of 4.4, NLR of 0.27, diagnostic odds ratio of 16, and area under the curve of 0.87. In conclusion, this meta-analysis demonstrates the feasibility of using miRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers to discriminate esophageal cancer from healthy controls. However, further high-quality studies on more clearly defined esophageal cancer patient are needed to confirm our conclusion.
Lymph node involvement in thymic malignancies is more common than previously recognized, especially in tumors with aggressive histology and advanced T category. Intentional lymph node dissection increases the detection of nodal involvement and improves accuracy of staging. In selected high-risk patients, systemic dissection of both N1and N2 nodes should be considered for accurate tumor staging.
These data suggest that androgen therapy could play an important role in pathophysiological changes in heart failure and have beneficial effects for its treatment.
Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) is a major negative regulator of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) during tumorigenesis. Previous studies have indicated that SOCS3 also regulates other signaling pathways, such as PI3K/Akt. However, little is known about the specific molecular mechanisms by which SOCS3 regulates the proliferation and angiogenesis of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells. The present study investigated the effect of SOCS3 upregulation on the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and how this affects the proliferation and angiogenesis of SCLC cells. It was investigated whether this interaction is associated with STAT3 or the Akt signaling pathway. The results of the present study revealed that SOCS3 negatively regulates proliferation and angiogenesis of NCI-H446 cells and that HIF-1α is required in this process. The results also suggested a suppressive role of SOCS3 in Akt signaling, but not STAT3 signaling to block HIF-1α expression and a previously unidentified regulatory mechanism for Akt function. In conclusion, the present study suggested that SOCS3 targets the Akt signaling pathway to inhibit HIF-1α expression and affect the growth and angio-genesis of SCLC cells, and may therefore be considered as a potential novel therapeutic for the treatment of SCLC.
BackgroundFerroptosis is a newly generated regulatory cell death promoted by the accumulated lipid-based reactive oxygen species (ROS). Solute carrier family 7 member 11 (SLC7A11), the cystine/glutamate antiporter, is known as a ferroptosis executor that exhibits a positive correlation with carcinoma progression because of antioxidant function. Nonetheless, it is yet unclear on the understanding of ferroptosis regulation in lung cancer.MethodsDatabase, qRT-PCR, Western-blot (WB), and immunohistochemistry were utilized to determine SLC7A11 expression and function, as well as gene iron related to necrosis in clinical tissue specimens and cells; a ferroptosis inducer, inhibitors, and SLC7A11 lentivirus were used to confirm SLC7A11’s biological activity in cell viability, oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and iron ion enrichment in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in different cells; lentivirus was used to infect lung adenocarcinoma cell lines to acquire miR-27a-3p overexpression and knockdown cell lines, and to detect SLC7A11 level through qRT-PCR and WB. The influence of upregulated/downregulated miR-27a-3p on ferroptosis and other related biological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma cell lines was detected.ResultsUpregulated SLC7A11 was shown in NSCLC patients and cells, and increased SLC7A11 had a relation to the poorly prognostic status of NSCLC patients. Besides, a novel miRNA, miR-27a-3p, was an essential modulator of ferroptosis via directly targeting SLC7A11 in NSCLC cells. Overexpressing miR-27a-3p led to SLC7A11 suppression via directly binding to its 3’-UTR, followed by the reduction of erastin-caused ferroptosis. In contrast, inhibited miR-27a-3p resulted in an increase in NSCLC cells’ sensitivity to erastin. Of importance, the accumulated lipid ROS and cell death of iron peptide mediated by anti-miR-27a-3p can be eliminated by impeding the glutamylation process. Our literature collectively uncovered that miR-27a-3p modulated ferroptosis by targeting SLC7A11 in NSCLC cells, illustrating the important role of miRNA in ferroptosis.ConclusionMiR-27a-3p modulates ferroptosis via targeting SLC7A11 in NSCLC cells, implying the significant role of miR-27a-3p/SLC7A11 in ferroptosis.
Accelerated progression of residual non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after incomplete radiofrequency ablation (RFA) has frequently been reported. In this study, NSCLC cells A549, CCL-185, and H358 were treated using a water bath at 47°C for 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 min gradually to establish the sublines A549-H, CCL-185-H, and H358-H, respectively. A549-H, CCL-185-H, and H358-H cells showed a significant increase in proliferation rate when compared with their corresponding parental cells in vitro. The expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was obviously upregulated in both A549-H and CCL-185-H cells. Silencing of HIF-1α abolished the insufficient RFA-induced proliferation in A549-H and CCL-185-H cells. Furthermore, insufficient RFA treatment markedly elevated the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Akt, but not of p38 MAPK or JNK, in A549-H and CCL-185-H cells. The inhibitor of Akt, LY294002, but not the inhibitor of ERK1/2, PD98059, suppressed the upregulation of HIF-1α and the proliferation of A549-H and CCL-185-H cells in vitro. The in vivo results confirmed that insufficient RFA could trigger the tumor growth, upregulate the HIF-1α expression, and activate Akt in A549 xenograft tumors. Our data suggest that insufficient RFA can promote the in vitro and in vivo growth of NSCLC via upregulating HIF-1α through the PI3K/Akt signals.
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