Osteoporosis is a major health problem that occurs as a result of an imbalance between bone formation and bone resorption. Different approaches have been established for treating osteoporosis. Recently, because of their health benefits and also low adverse reaction, probiotics have been receiving considerable attention. In this study, we compared the effectiveness of five probiotic strains, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bacillus coagulans, in protecting rats from ovariectomized (OVX)-induced bone loss. Forty-nine adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into seven groups as follows: group 1, control; group 2, OVX; group 3, OVX + Lactobacillus acidophilus; group 4, OVX + Lactobacillus casei; group 5, OVX + Bacillus coagulans; group 6, OVX + Bifidobacterium longum; and group 7, OVX + Lactobacillus reuteri. Probiotics were fed to OVX groups at the concentration of (1 × 10 CFU/ml/day) for 4 weeks. Then, biochemical parameters, including vitamin D, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), were assessed. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were used that assess bone mineral density (BMD), bone marrow concentration (BMC), and area of global, femur, spine, and tibia. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei significantly increased Ca and ALP and decreased P in treated groups. Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Bifidobacterium longum increased vitamin D significantly. Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei indicated the most effects on BMD. In terms of BMC, and bone area, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Lactobacillus casei demonstrated the significant enhancement in OVX groups treated with. Among the probiotics used in this study, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei showed the most effects in terms of BMD, BMC, bone area, and biochemical parameters. It seems that probiotics effects on bone health are strain dependent, but further studies should be done to prove these findings.
Post-menopausal osteoporosis is a concern of health organizations, and current treatments do not seem enough. Postbiotics as bioactive compounds produced by probiotics may be an attractive alternative for bone health. In this study, we prepared, formulated, and compared the effects of cell lysate and supernatant of five native probiotic strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium longum, and Bacillus coagulans) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.
The probiotic strains were isolated, and their cell-free supernatants and biomasses as postbiotics were extracted and formulated using standard microbial processes. The Sprague-Dawley rats were fed by 1 × 109 CFU/ml/day postbiotic preparations for 4 weeks immediately after ovariectomy. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scans were accomplished to evaluate femur, spine, and tibia BMD. The serum biochemical markers [calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase] were assessed.
Postbiotics could considerably improve the global and femur area in OVX rats. In the case of global bone mineral density (BMD), Lactobacillus casei lysate and supernatant, Bacillus coagulans lysate and supernatant, lysate of Bifidobacterium longum and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus reuteri supernatant significantly increased BMD. We found Bacillus coagulans supernatant meaningfully enriched tibia BMD.
Postbiotic could ameliorate bone loss resulting from estrogen deficiency. Also, the effects of postbiotics on different bone sites are strain-dependent. More clinical studies need to explore the optimal administrative dose and duration of the specific postbiotics in protecting bone loss.
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