Objective: Informed consent forms that are used prior to administering anaesthesia inform patients before any proposed surgical procedure or treatment. They should provide patients with sufficient information about the operation and treatment. Readibility refers to whether it is easy or hard for a reader to read and understand an available text, and this is evaluated via various formulas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the readability of different informed consent forms commonly used in the anaesthesiology departments of different hospitals in our country using different readability formulas. Methods: After obtaining ethics committee approval, the readability of different consent forms used in the anaesthesiology departments of university hospitals (n=15), Ministry of Health (MOH) education and research hospitals (n=15), and public hospitals (n=15) was analysed. Each consent form was displayed electronically in "Microsoft Word" and the number of words contained was counted automatically. The first 100 words on the first page of the forms were evaluated using the Gunning Fog, Flesch-Kincaid and Ateşman readability formulations. The rate of medical terms detected within these 100 words was determined as a percentage (%). Results: Different consent forms obtained from 45 anaesthesia departments were assessed using various readability formulas. According to the Gunning Fog index, the readability of the consent forms obtained from MOH education and research and public hospitals was relatively low. The Flesch-Kincaid index measured very low levels of readability in all institutions. The Ateşman index displayed very low readability levels for the consent forms used in university hospitals, and low levels in other institutions. Conclusion: We conclude that the readability of the anaesthesia informed consent forms is low. The level of education in our country should be considered in the preparation of anaesthesia consent forms. We believe that physicians should pay more attention to this medical and legal issue.
We evaluated the readability of Internet-sourced patient education materials (PEMs) related to “labour analgesia.” In addition to assessing the readability of websites, we aimed to compare commercial, personal, and academic websites.We used the most popular search engine (http://www.google.com) in our study. The first 100 websites in English that resulted from a search for the key words “labour analgesia” were scanned. Websites that were not in English, graphs, pictures, videos, tables, figures and list formats in the text, all punctuation, the number of words in the text is less than 100 words, feedback forms not related to education, (Uniform Resource Locator) URL websites, author information, references, legal disclaimers, and addresses and telephone numbers were excluded.The texts included in the study were assessed using the Flesch Reading Ease Score (FRES), Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level (FKGL), Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG), and Gunning Frequency of Gobbledygook (FOG) readability formulae. The number of Latin words within the text was determined.Analysis of 300-word sections of the texts revealed that the mean FRES was 47.54 ± 12.54 (quite difficult), mean FKGL and SMOG were 11.92 ± 2.59 and 10.57 ± 1.88 years of education, respectively, and mean Gunning FOG was 14.71 ± 2.76 (very difficult). Within 300-word sections, the mean number of Latin words was identified as 16.56 ± 6.37.In our study, the readability level of Internet-sourced PEM related to “labour analgesia” was identified to be quite high indicating poor readability.
Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of local ischemic preconditioning using biochemical markers and histopathologically in the diabetic rat renal IR injury model. Methods. DM was induced using streptozotocin. Rats were divided into four groups: Group I, nondiabetic sham group (n = 7), Group II, diabetic sham group (n = 6), Group III, diabetic IR group (diabetic IR group, n = 6), and Group IV, diabetic IR + local ischemic preconditioning group (diabetic IR + LIPC group, n = 6). Ischemic renal injury was induced by clamping the bilateral renal artery for 45 min. 4 h following ischemia, clearance protocols were applied to assess biochemical markers and histopathologically in rat kidneys. Results. The histomorphologic total cell injury scores of the nondiabetic sham group were significantly lower than diabetic sham, diabetic IR, and diabetic IR + LIPC groups. Diabetic IR group scores were not significantly different than the diabetic sham group. But diabetic IR + LIPC group scores were significantly higher than the diabetic sham and diabetic IR groups. Conclusion. Local ischemic preconditioning does not reduce the risk of renal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion in diabetic rat model.
BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) and dexmedetomidine as pharmacological conditioning in a rat renal ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury model.
BACKGROUND: Stump closure is the most important part of a laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). Closing the appendix base with knot tying is the most cost-effective method. The defined risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) after LA is the contamination of trocar entry area by inflamed appendicitis. This study aims to compare the single and double knot technique for stump control and specimen removal methods in LA.
METHODS:The data of patients who underwent LA between January 2015 and January 2017 were obtained from prospectively collected database. Single and double knot technique, specimen removal method, operation duration, hospital stay, and perioperativepostoperative complications were compared.
RESULTS:Extracorporeal double knot was used in 134 patients (63%), and single knot was used in 79 patients (37%). There was no difference between operation duration in the two groups (p=0.97). No stump leakage was observed in any patient. Intraabdominal abscess developed in three patients (1.4%). Appendix was removed from the abdomen directly in 101 patients (47%) and using specimen retrieval bag in 112 (53%). SSI developed in five patients (2.3%), and appendices of all of these five patients were removed from abdomen without using specimen retrieval bag. No SSI was detected in the group that used the specimen retrieval bag (p=0.02).
CONCLUSION:Single or double knot(s) tying can be defined as safe and cost-effective stump closure method. The risk of developing SSI can be reduced using specimen retrieval bag.
Pharmacologic conditioning with dexmedetomidine and remote ischemic preconditioning when combined with dexmedetomidine significantly decreases renal ischemia-reperfusion injury histomorphologically. Combined use of two methods prevents apoptosis via active caspase-3.
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