Data from studies in pediatric samples exploring adherence to the Mediterranean diet are scarce. The aim of the present work was to explore adherence to a Mediterranean diet pattern in a representative sample of Greek children and adolescents. The study sample (n = 1305, 3-18 y) was representative of the Greek pediatric population in terms of sex and age. Information on participants' sociodemographic, anthropometric, and lifestyle characteristics were collected through telephone interviews. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet guidelines for adults and to the general dietary guidelines for children was evaluated using KIDMED scores: the higher the score, the more favorable the dietary pattern. The Goldberg cut-off limits for the ratio of energy intake:basal metabolic rate were used to evaluate dietary underreporting and children were accordingly classified as low energy reporters (LER) or non-LER. Only 11.3% of children and 8.3% of adolescents had an optimal KIDMED score (>/=8). In adolescents, partial correlation analysis revealed a negative weak association between KIDMED and BMI (r = -0.092; P = 0.031), which remained significant in the non-LER subgroup (r = -0.137, P = 0.011). Multiple regression analysis revealed that higher KIDMED scores were associated, in non-LER children, with less time spent on sedentary activities (P = 0.002) and higher paternal education (P = 0.050), whereas in adolescents, with younger age (P = 0.001), less time spent on sedentary activities (P = 0.015), higher maternal education (P = 0.014), and higher eating frequency (P = 0.041). In conclusion, low adherence rates to the Mediterranean diet were observed in Greek children and adolescents; this evidence needs to be further explored regarding its impact on health and disease.
<b><i>Introduction:</i></b> Obesity constitutes a major public health problem in Europe, but how the obesity epidemic in European countries will evolve remains unknown. Most previous obesity projections considered the short-term future only, focused on single non-European countries, and projected ongoing increases foremost. We comparatively project obesity prevalence into the long-term future for 18 European countries and the USA. <b><i>Data:</i></b> We used national age-specific (20–84 years) and sex-specific obesity prevalence estimates (1975–2016) from the NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) 2017 study, which are based on available measured height and weight data, supplemented with estimates from a Bayesian hierarchical model. <b><i>Methods:</i></b> We projected age- and sex-specific obesity prevalence up to the year 2100 by integrating the notion of a wave-shaped obesity epidemic into conventional age-period projections. <b><i>Results:</i></b> In 1990–2016, the increasing trends in obesity prevalence were decelerating. Obesity is expected to reach maximum levels between 2030 and 2052 among men, and between 2026 and 2054 among women. The maximum levels will likely be reached first in The Netherlands, USA, and UK, and last in Switzerland; and are expected to be highest in the USA and UK, and lowest in The Netherlands for men and Denmark for women. In 2060, obesity prevalence is expected to be lowest among Dutch men and highest among Swiss men. The projected age-specific obesity prevalence levels have an inverse U-shape, peaking at around the age of 60–69 years. <b><i>Discussion:</i></b> Applying our novel approach to the NCD-RisC 2017 data, obesity prevalence is expected to reach maximum levels between 2026 and 2054, with the USA and UK reaching the highest maximum levels first, followed by other European countries.
ObjectiveThis study assesses the impact of obesity on life expectancy for 26 European national populations and the USA over the 1975–2012 period.DesignSecondary analysis of population-level obesity and mortality data.SettingEuropean countries, namely Austria, Belarus, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, the Russian Federation, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine and the UK; and the USA.ParticipantsNational populations aged 18–100 years, by sex.MeasurementsUsing data by age and sex, we calculated obesity-attributable mortality by multiplying all-cause mortality (Human Mortality Database) with obesity-attributable mortality fractions (OAMFs). OAMFs were obtained by applying the weighted sum method to obesity prevalence data (non-communicable diseases (NCD) Risk Factor Collaboration) and European relative risks (Dynamic Modeling for Health Impact Assessment (DYNAMO- HIA)). We estimated potential gains in life expectancy (PGLE) at birth by eliminating obesity-attributable mortality from all-cause mortality using associated single-decrement life tables.ResultsIn the 26 European countries in 2012, PGLE due to obesity ranged from 0.86 to 1.67 years among men, and from 0.66 to 1.54 years among women. In all countries, PGLE increased over time, with an average annual increase of 2.68% among men and 1.33% among women. Among women in Denmark, Switzerland, and Central and Eastern European countries, the increase in PGLE levelled off after 1995. Without obesity, the average increase in life expectancy between 1975 and 2012 would have been 0.78 years higher among men and 0.30 years higher among women.ConclusionsObesity was proven to have an impact on both life expectancy levels and trends in Europe. The differences found in this impact between countries and the sexes can be linked to contextual factors, as well as to differences in people’s ability and capacity to adopt healthier lifestyles.
for the CARDIOGENE Study groupPurpose: We investigated the association of a polymorphism within the promoter of ⌻⌵F-␣ locus at the position Ϫ308 on the likelihood of having acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in Greek adults. Methods: We studied demographic, lifestyle, and clinical information in 237 hospitalized patients (185 males) with a first event of an ACS and 237 matched by age and sex (controls) without any clinical evidence of coronary heart disease.
The overall high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the current population is significant and underscores the need for environmental and genetic information that will shed light on the phenomenon of childhood obesity.
Background: Variation in the peroxisome-proliferatoractivated receptor g (PPARg) gene has been reported to alter the risk for adiposity in adults. Methods: We investigated the gender related association between the Pro12Ala variant (rs1801282) in obesity and insulin resistance traits in 794 peri-adolescent children aged 10-12 years of Greek origin from the Gene and Diet Attica Investigation (GENDAI) cohort. Results: Gender stratified analysis suggested that in peri-adolescent boys, Ala carriers exhibited lower measures of skinfold (triceps: 16.9"6.9 vs. 19.4"7.9 mm, ps0.014; subscapular: 9.6"4.5 vs. 11.2"5.4 mm, ps0.016) and lower adiponectin concentrations
ObjectivesTo assess age, period, and birth cohort effects and patterns of obesity-attributable mortality in Czech Republic, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, and the UK (UK).MethodsWe obtained obesity prevalence and all-cause mortality data by age (20–79), sex and country for 1990–2012. We applied Clayton and Schifflers’ age–period–cohort approach to obesity-attributable mortality rates (OAMRs).ResultsBetween 1990 and 2012, obesity prevalence increased and age-standardised OAMRs declined, although not uniformly. The nonlinear birth cohort effects contributed significantly (p < 0.01) to obesity-attributable mortality trends in all populations, except in Czech Republic, Finland, and among German women, and Polish men. Their contribution was greater than 25% in UK and among French women, and larger than that of the nonlinear period effects. In the UK, mortality rate ratios (MRRs) increased among the cohorts born after 1950. In other populations with significant birth cohort effects, MRRs increased among the 1935–1960 cohorts and decreased thereafter.ConclusionsGiven its potential effects on obesity-attributable mortality, the cohort dimension should not be ignored and calls for interventions early in life next to actions targeting broader societal changes.Electronic supplementary materialThe online version of this article (10.1007/s00038-018-1126-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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