Campbell, B. C.V. et al. (2019) Penumbral imaging and functional outcome in patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke treated with endovascular thrombectomy versus medical therapy: a meta-analysis of individual patient-level data.ABSTRACT Background: CT-perfusion (CTP) and MRI may assist patient selection for endovascular thrombectomy. We aimed to establish whether imaging assessments of ischaemic core and penumbra volumes were associated with functional outcomes and treatment effect.
Campbell, B. C. V. et al. (2018) Effect of general anaesthesia on functional outcome in patients with anterior circulation ischaemic stroke having endovascular thrombectomy versus standard care: a meta-analysis of individual patient data. Lancet Neurology, 17(1), pp. 47-53. (doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(17)30407-6) This is the author's final accepted version.There may be differences between this version and the published version. You are advised to consult the publisher's version if you wish to cite from it.http://eprints.gla.ac.uk/149670/ variables. An alternative approach using propensity-score stratification was also used. To account for between-trial variance we used mixed-effects modeling with a random effect for trial incorporated in all models. Bias was assessed using the Cochrane tool.Findings: Of 1764 patients in 7 trials, 871 were allocated to endovascular thrombectomy. After exclusion of 74 patients (72 who did not undergo the procedure and 2 with missing data on anaesthetic strategy), 236/797 (30%) of endovascular patients were treated under GA. At baseline, GA patients were younger and had shorter time to randomisation but similar pre-treatment clinical severity compared to non-GA. Endovascular thrombectomy improved functional outcome at 3 months versus standard care in both GA (adjusted common odds ratio (cOR) 1·52, 95%CI 1·09-2·11, p=0·014) and non-GA (adjusted cOR 2·33, 95%CI 1·75-3·10, p<0·001) patients. However, outcomes were significantly better for those treated under non-GA versus GA (covariate-adjusted cOR 1·53, 95%CI 1·14-2·04, p=0·004; propensitystratified cOR 1·44 95%CI 1·08-1·92, p=0·012). The risk of bias and variability among studies was assessed to be low.Interpretation: Worse outcomes after endovascular thrombectomy were associated with GA, after adjustment for baseline prognostic variables. These data support avoidance of GA whenever possible. The procedure did, however, remain effective versus standard care in patients treated under GA, indicating that treatment should not be withheld in those who require anaesthesia for medical reasons. Funding:The HERMES collaboration was funded by an unrestricted grant from Medtronic to the University of Calgary. Research in contextEvidence before this study between abolition of the thrombectomy treatment effect in MR CLEAN and no effect in THRACE. Three single-centre randomised trials of general anaesthesia versus conscious sedation found either no difference in functional outcome between groups or a slight benefit of general anaesthesia. Added value of this studyThese data from contemporary, high quality randomised trials form the largest study to date of the association between general anesthesia and the benefit of endovascular thrombectomy versus standard care. We used two different approaches to adjust for baseline imbalances (multivariable logistic regression and propensity-score stratification). We found that GA for endovascular thrombectomy, as practiced in contemporary clinical care across a wide range of expert centres during the rand...
Background and Purpose— If a relationship between stroke etiology and thrombus computed tomography characteristics exists, assessing these characteristics in clinical practice could serve as a useful additional diagnostic tool for the identification of stroke subtype. Our purpose was to study the association of stroke etiology and thrombus computed tomography characteristics in patients with acute ischemic stroke due to a large vessel occlusion. Methods— For 1429 consecutive patients enrolled in the MR CLEAN Registry, we determined stroke cause as defined by the TOAST (Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment) criteria. The association of stroke etiology with the hyperdense artery sign, clot burden score, and thrombus location was estimated with univariable and multivariable binary and ordinal logistic regression. Additionally, for 367 patients with available thin-section imaging, we assessed the association of stroke etiology with absolute and relative thrombus attenuation, distance from internal carotid artery-terminus to thrombus, thrombus length, and thrombus attenuation increase with univariable and multivariable linear regression. Results— Compared with cardioembolic strokes, noncardioembolic strokes were associated with presence of hyperdense artery sign (odds ratio, 2.2 [95% CI, 1.6–3.0]), lower clot burden score (common odds ratio, 0.4 [95% CI, 0.3–0.6]), shift towards a more proximal thrombus location (common odds ratio, 0.2 [95% CI, 0.2–0.3]), higher absolute thrombus attenuation (β, 3.6 [95% CI, 0.9–6.4]), decrease in distance from the ICA-terminus (β, −5.7 [95% CI, −8.3 to −3.0]), and longer thrombi (β, 8.6 [95% CI, 6.5−10.7]), based on univariable analysis. Thrombus characteristics of strokes with undetermined cause were similar to those of cardioembolic strokes. Conclusions— Thrombus computed tomography characteristics of cardioembolic stroke are distinct from those of noncardioembolic stroke. Additionally, our study supports the general hypothesis that many cryptogenic strokes have a cardioembolic cause. Further research should focus on the use of thrombus computed tomography characteristics as a diagnostic tool for stroke cause in clinical practice.
Background and Purpose: Mechanical properties of thromboemboli play an important role in the efficacy of endovascular thrombectomy (EVT) for acute ischemic stroke. However, very limited data on mechanical properties of human stroke thrombi are available. We aimed to mechanically characterize thrombi retrieved with EVT, and to assess the relationship between thrombus composition and thrombus stiffness. Methods: Forty-one thrombi from 19 patients with acute stroke who underwent EVT between July and October 2019 were mechanically analyzed, directly after EVT. We performed unconfined compression experiments and determined tangent modulus at 75% strain (E t75 ) as a measure for thrombus stiffness. Thrombi were histologically analyzed for fibrin/platelets, erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets, and we assessed the relationship between histological components and E t75 with univariable and multivariable linear mixed regression. Results: Median E t75 was 560 (interquartile range, 393–1161) kPa. In the multivariable analysis, fibrin/platelets were associated with increased E t75 (aβ, 9 [95% CI, 5 to 13]) kPa, erythrocytes were associated with decreased E t75% (aβ, −9 [95% CI, −5 to −13]) kPa. We found no association between leukocytes and E t75 . High platelet values were strongly associated with increased E t75 (aβ, 56 [95% CI, 38–73]). Conclusions: Fibrin/platelet content of thrombi retrieved with EVT for acute ischemic stroke is strongly associated with increased thrombus stiffness. For thrombi with high platelet values, there was a very strong relationship with thrombus stiffness. Our data provide a basis for future research on the development of next-generation EVT devices tailored to thrombus composition.
BackgroundFirst pass reperfusion (FPR), that is, excellent reperfusion (expanded treatment in cerebral ischemia (eTICI) 2C-3) in one pass, after endovascular treatment (EVT) of an occluded artery in the anterior circulation, is associated with favorable clinical outcome, even when compared with multiple pass excellent reperfusion (MPR). In patients with posterior circulation ischemic stroke (PCS), the same association is expected, but currently unknown. We aimed to assess characteristics associated with FPR and the influence of FPR versus MPR on outcomes in patients with PCS.MethodsWe used data from the MR CLEAN Registry, a prospective observational study. The effect of FPR on 24-hour National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, as percentage reduction, and on modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores at 3 months, was tested with linear and ordinal logistic regression models.ResultsOf 224 patients with PCS, 45 patients had FPR, 47 had MPR, and 90 had no excellent reperfusion (eTICI <2C). We did not find an association between any of the patient, imaging, or treatment characteristics and FPR. FPR was associated with better NIHSS (−45% (95% CI: −65% to −12%)) and better mRS scores (adjusted common odds ratio (acOR): 2.16 (95% CI: 1.23 to 3.79)) compared with no FPR. Outcomes after FPR were also more favorable compared with MPR, but the effect was smaller and not statistically significant (NIHSS: −14% (95% CI: −51% to 49%), mRS acOR: 1.50 (95% CI: 0.75 to 3.00)).ConclusionsFPR in patients with PCS is associated with favorable clinical outcome in comparison with no FPR. In comparison with MPR, the effect of FPR was no longer statistically significant. Nevertheless, our data support the notion that FPR should be the treatment target to pursue in every patient treated with EVT.
Inter-hospital transfer is an important cause of delay in the delivery of IAT and every effort should be made to avoid transfers and reduce transfer-related delay. Furthermore, in-hospital workflow should be optimized to improve functional outcome after IAT.
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