Aims We aimed to evaluate the long-term impact of fracture-related infection (FRI) on patients’ physical health and psychological wellbeing. For this purpose, quality of life after successful surgical treatment of FRIs of long bones was assessed. Methods A total of 37 patients treated between November 2009 and March 2019, with achieved eradication of infection and stable bone consolidation after long bone FRI, were included. Quality of life was evaluated with the EuroQol five-dimension questionnaire (EQ-5D) and German Short-Form 36 (SF-36) outcome instruments as well as with an International Classification of Diseases of the World Health Organization (ICD)-10 based symptom rating (ISR) and compared to normative data. Results With a mean follow-up of 4.19 years (SD 2.7) after the last surgery, the mean SF-36 score was 40.1 (SD 14.6) regarding the physical health component and 48.7 (SD 5.1) regarding the mental health component, compared to German normative values of 48.4 (SD 9.2) (p < 0.001) and 50.9 (SD 8.8) (p = 0.143). The mean EQ-5D index reached 0.76 (SD 0.27) with a mean EQ-5D visual analogue scale (VAS) rating of 65.7 (SD 22.7) compared to reference scores of 0.88 (p < 0.001) and 72.9 (p < 0.001). Mean scores of the ISR did not reveal significant psychological symptom burden, while an individual analysis showed moderate to severe impairments in 21.6% (n = 8) of the patients. Conclusion Even a mean 4.2 years (SD 2.7) after surgically successful treatment of FRI of long bones, patients report significantly lower quality of life in comparison to normative data. Future clinical studies on FRIs should focus on patient-related outcome measures enabling best possible shared treatment decision-making. Prevention methods and interdisciplinary approaches should be implemented to improve the overall quality of life of FRI patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint Res 2021;10(5):321–327.
Background: We aimed to evaluate the impact of knee periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) by assessing the patients’ long-term quality of life and explicitly their psychological wellbeing after successful treatment. Methods: Thirty-six patients with achieved eradication of infection after knee PJI were included. Quality of life was evaluated with the EQ-5D and SF-36 outcome instruments as well as with an ICD-10 based symptom rating (ISR) and compared to normative data. Results: At a follow-up of 4.9 ± 3.5 years the mean SF-36 score was 24.82 ± 10.0 regarding the physical health component and 46.16 ± 13.3 regarding the mental health component compared to German normative values of 48.36 ± 9.4 (p < 0.001) and 50.87 ± 8.8 (p = 0.003). The mean EQ-5D index reached 0.55 ± 0.33 with an EQ-5D VAS rating of 52.14 ± 19.9 compared to reference scores of 0.891 (p < 0.001) and 68.6 ± 1.1 (p < 0.001). Mean scores of the ISR revealed the psychological symptom burden on the depression scale. Conclusion: PJI patients still suffer from significantly lower quality of life compared to normative data, even years after surgically successful treatment. Future clinical studies should focus on patient-related outcome measures. Newly emerging treatment strategies, prevention methods, and interdisciplinary approaches should be implemented to improve the quality of life of PJI patients.
The epidemiology of fracture-related infection (FRI) is unknown, which makes it difficult to estimate future demands and evaluate progress in infection prevention. Therefore, we aimed to determine the nationwide burden’s development over the last decade as a function of age group and gender. FRI prevalence as a function of age group and gender was quantified based on annual ICD-10 diagnosis codes from German medical institutions between 2008 through 2018, provided by the Federal Statistical Office of Germany (Destatis). The prevalence of FRI increased by 0.28 from 8.4 cases per 100,000 inhabitants to 10.7 cases per 100,000 inhabitants between 2008 and 2018. The proportion of fractures resulting in FRI increased from 1.05 to 1.23%. Gender distribution was equal. Patients aged 60–69 years and 70–79 years comprised the largest internal proportion with 20.2% and 20.7%, respectively, whereby prevalence increased with age group. A trend towards more diagnoses in older patients was observed with a growth rate of 0.63 for patients older than 90 years. Increasing rates of fracture-related infection especially in older patients indicate an upcoming challenge for stakeholders in health care systems. Newly emerging treatment strategies, prevention methods and interdisciplinary approaches are strongly required.
Background: Empiric antibiotic therapy for suspected vertebral osteomyelitis (VO) should be initiated immediately in severely ill patients, and might be necessary for culture-negative VO. The current study aimed to identify differences between community-acquired (CA) and healthcare-associated (HA) VO in terms of clinical presentation, causative pathogens, and antibiotic susceptibility. Methods: Cases of adult patients with VO treated at a German university orthopaedic trauma center between 2000 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient history was used to distinguish between CA and HA VO. Susceptibility of antibiotic regimens was assessed based on antibiograms of the isolated pathogens. Results: A total of 155 patients (with a male to female ratio of 1.3; and a mean age of 66.1 ± 12.4 years) with VO were identified. In 74 (47.7%) patients, infections were deemed healthcare-associated. The most frequently identified pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (HAVO: 51.2%; CAVO: 46.8%), and Coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS, HAVO: 31.7%; CAVO: 21.3%). Antibiograms of 45 patients (HAVO: n = 22; CAVO: n = 23) were evaluated. Significantly more methicillin-resistant isolates, mainly CoNS, were found in the HAVO cohort (27.3%). The highest rate of resistance was found for cefazolin (HAVO: 45.5%; CAVO: 26.1%). Significantly higher rates of resistances were seen in the HAVO cohort for mono-therapies with meropenem (36.4%), piperacillin–tazobactam (31.8%), ceftriaxone (27.3%), and co-amoxiclav (31.8%). The broadest antimicrobial coverage was achieved with either a combination of piperacillin–tazobactam + vancomycin (CAVO: 100.0%; HAVO: 90.9%) or meropenem + vancomycin (CAVO: 100.0%; HAVO: 95.5%). Conclusion: Healthcare association is common in VO. The susceptibility pattern of underlying pathogens differs from CAVO. When choosing an empiric antibiotic, combination therapy must be considered.
Antibiotic treatment strategies for fracture-related infections (FRI) are often extrapolated from periprosthetic joint infections (PJI), although, in contrast to PJI, detailed analysis of pathogens and their antibiotic resistance is missing. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate antibiotic susceptibility profiles to identify effective empiric antibiotic treatment for early-, delayed-, and late-onset FRI. Patients treated for FRI from 2013 to 2020 were grouped into early (<2 weeks), delayed (3–10 weeks), and late (>10 weeks) onset of infection. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were examined with respect to broadly used antibiotics and antibiotic combinations. In total, 117 patients (early n = 19, delayed n = 60, late n = 38) were enrolled. In early-onset FRI, 100.0% efficacy would be achieved by meropenem + vancomycin, gentamicin + vancomycin, co-amoxiclav + glycopeptide, ciprofloxacin + glycopeptide and piperacillin/tazobactam + glycopeptide. For patients with delayed FRI, the highest susceptibility was revealed for meropenem + vancomycin, gentamicin + vancomycin and ciprofloxacin + glycopeptide (96.7%). Meropenem + vancomycin was the most effective empiric antimicrobial in patients with late-onset of infection with 92.1% coverage. No subgroup differences in antibiotic sensitivity profiles were observed except for the combination ciprofloxacin + glycopeptide, which was significantly superior in early FRI (F = 3.304, p = 0.04). Across all subgroups meropenem + vancomycin was the most effective empiric treatment in 95.7% of patients with confirmed susceptibility. Meropenem + vancomycin, gentamicin + vancomycin, co-amoxiclav + glycopeptide are the best therapeutic options for FRI, regardless of the onset of infection. To avoid multidrug resistance, established antibiotic combinations such as co-amoxiclav with a glycopeptide seem to be reasonable as a systemic antibiotic therapy, while vancomycin + gentamicin could be implemented in local antibiotic therapy to reduce adverse events during treatment.
Background Antibiotic-containing cement and bone graft substitute-coated orthopedic implants provide the advantages of simultaneous local antibiotic delivery and internal stable fixation, aiding in both infection eradication and osseous healing. Standardized protocols pertaining to implant coating techniques in various clinical and particularly intraoperative settings are scarce, and available literature is limited. This systematic review aims to provide a summary of the available current literature reporting on custom-made coating techniques of orthopedic implants, indications, outcomes, and associated complications in clinical use. Methods A systematic search of the literature in PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases was performed in accordance with PRISMA guidelines. Articles reporting specifically on custom-made coating techniques of orthopedic implants in a clinical setting were eligible. Results A total of 41 articles with a cumulative total number of 607 cases were included. Indications for treatment mostly involved intramedullary infections after previous plate osteosynthesis or nailing. A variety of implants ranging from intramedullary nails, plates, wires, and rods served as metal cores for coating. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement was most commonly used, with vancomycin as the most frequently added antibiotic additive. Chest tubes and silicone tubes were most often used to mold. Common complications are cement debonding and breakage of the metallic implant. Conclusion Adequate coating techniques can reduce the burden of treatment and be associated with favorable outcomes. Lack of general consensus and heterogeneity in the reported literature indicate that the perfect all-in-one implant coating method is yet to be found. Further efforts to improve implant coating techniques are warranted. Level of evidence III.
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