This study addressed how bilingual speakers switch between their first and second language when speaking. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and naming latencies were measured while unbalanced German (L1)-Dutch (L2) speakers performed a picture-naming task. Participants named pictures either in their L1 or in their L2 (blocked language conditions), or participants switched between their first and second language unpredictably (mixed language condition). Furthermore, form similarity between translation equivalents (cognate status) was manipulated. A cognate facilitation effect was found for L1 and L2 indicating phonological activation of the non-response language in blocked and mixed language conditions. The ERP data also revealed small but reliable effects of cognate status. IntroductionBilingual speakers show remarkable flexibility in their ability to control their language output. They can restrict their speech to one language only but also intentionally switch between languages in bilingual settings. The question arises how bilinguals select the intended language and what mechanisms they rely on when switching from one language to the other. Bilinguals vary in proficiency of their second language ranging from very high levels of proficiency (highly proficient bilinguals or balanced bilinguals) to low levels of proficiency (L2 learners and L2 attriters). Even highly proficient bilinguals usually have a dominant and a non-dominant language which is reflected, for instance, in faster picture-naming latencies for their first compared to their second language (e.g., Chen and Leung, 1989;Christoffels et al., 2006;Potter et al., 1984). However, under language switching conditions, this difference in naming latencies between L1 and L2 may disappear or even reverse, with shorter picture-naming latencies for the second than the first language (Costa and Santesteban, 2004;Costa et al., 2006;Meuter and Allport, 1999;Philipp et al., 2006; see also Kroll et al., 2006). Switching between languages may therefore profoundly affect production in the native tongue. In this study, we address intentional language switching and the impact of the bilingual switching context on distinguishing transient and sustained components of language control.
In this study, we investigated grammatical feature selection during noun phrase production in German and Dutch. More specifically, we studied the conditions under which different grammatical genders select either the same or different determiners or suffixes. Pictures of one or two objects paired with a gender-congruent or a gender-incongruent distractor word were presented. Participants named the pictures using a singular or plural noun phrase with the appropriate determiner and/or adjective in German or Dutch. Significant effects of gender congruency were only obtained in the singular condition where the selection of determiners is governed by the targetÕs gender, but not in the plural condition where the determiner is identical for all genders. When different suffixes were to be selected in the genderincongruent condition, no gender congruency effect was obtained. The results suggest that the so-called gender congruency effect is really a determiner congruency effect. The overall pattern of results is interpreted as indicating that grammatical feature selection is an automatic consequence of lexical node selection and therefore not subject to interference from other grammatical features. This implies that lexical node and grammatical feature selection operate with distinct principles. Ó 2002 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.Keywords: Speech production; Lexical access; Grammatical feature selection; Gender congruency This study investigates how words are accessed and uttered in the course of speech production. To produce speech, different types of lexical information, including semantic, grammatical, and phonological specifications have to be retrieved from long-term memory. Most of the research in the area of lexical access has focused on the retrieval of the phonological form of nouns. However, for the production of noun phrases, for instance, access to grammatical or syntactic features of words, such as case, number, or gender, is also needed. In German, for instance, each noun has a specific gender. Furthermore, adjectives modifying a noun require a gender-marked suffix that agrees with the gender of the noun. Take the German sentence ''Ein ðnom;sgÞ gr€ u unes ðnom;sgÞ Fenster ðnom;sgÞ des ðgen;sgÞ roten ðgen;sgÞ Hauses ðgen;sgÞ ist ðsgÞ schmutzig'' [A green window of the red house is dirty] as an example. 1The word Hauses is the genitive singular form of the neuter noun Haus (ÔhouseÕ). Since the determiner (e.g., das ÔtheÕ; genitive form: des Ôof theÕ) and the adjective (e.g., rot ÔredÕ) are syntactically dependent on the noun and thus
Speakers use external auditory feedback to monitor their own speech. Feedback distortion has been found to increase activity in the superior temporal areas. Using fMRI, the present study investigates the neural correlates of processing verbal feedback without distortion. In a blocked design, the following conditions were presented: (1) overt picture-naming, (2) overt picture-naming while pink noise was presented to mask external feedback, (3) covert picture-naming, (4) listening to the picture names (previously recorded from participants' own voices), and (5) listening to pink noise. The results show that auditory feedback processing involves a network of different areas related to general performance monitoring and speech-motor control. These include the cingulate cortex and the bilateral insula, supplementary motor area, bilateral motor areas, cerebellum, thalamus and basal ganglia. Our findings suggest that the anterior cingulate cortex, which is often implicated in error-processing and conflict-monitoring, is also engaged in ongoing speech monitoring. Furthermore, in the superior temporal gyrus, we found a reduced response to speaking under normal feedback conditions. This finding is interpreted in the framework of a forward model according to which, during speech production, the sensory consequence of the speech-motor act is predicted to attenuate the sensitivity of the auditory cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 28:  2007. V V C 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
In the speech production model proposed by [Levelt, W. J. M., Roelofs, A., Meyer, A. S. (1999). A theory of lexical access in speech production. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22, pp. 1-75.], syllables play a crucial role at the interface of phonological and phonetic encoding. At this interface, abstract phonological syllables are translated into phonetic syllables. It is assumed that this translation process is mediated by a so-called Mental Syllabary. Rather than constructing the motor programs for each syllable on-line, the mental syllabary is hypothesized to provide pre-compiled gestural scores for the articulators. In order to find evidence for such a repository, we investigated syllable-frequency effects: If the mental syllabary consists of retrievable representations corresponding to syllables, then the retrieval process should be sensitive to frequency differences. In a series of experiments using a symbol-position association learning task, we tested whether highfrequency syllables are retrieved and produced faster compared to low-frequency syllables. We found significant syllable frequency effects with monosyllabic pseudo-words and disyllabic pseudo-words in which the first syllable bore the frequency manipulation; no effect was found when the frequency manipulation was on the second syllable. The implications of these results for the theory of word form encoding at the interface of phonological and phonetic encoding; especially with respect to the access mechanisms to the mental syllabary in the speech production model by (Levelt et al.) are discussed. q
To investigate the role of the syllable in Dutch speech production, five experiments were carried out to examine the effect of visually masked syllable primes on the naming latencies for written words and pictures. Targets had clear syllable boundaries and began with a CV syllable (e.g., ka.no) or a CVC syllable (e.g., kak.tus), or had ambiguous syllable boundaries and began with a CV [C] syllable (e.g., ka [pp]er). In the syllable match condition, bisyllabic Dutch nouns or verbs were preceded by primes that were identical to the target's first syllable. In the syllable mismatch condition, the prime was either shorter or longer than the target's first syllable. A neutral condition was also included. None of the experiments showed a syllable priming effect. Instead, all related primes facilitated the naming of the targets. It is concluded that the syllable does not play a role in the process of phonological encoding in Dutch. Because the amount of facilitation increased with increasing overlap between prime and target, the priming effect is accounted for by a segmental overlap hypothesis.
a b s t r a c t a r t i c l e i n f oThe present study investigated morphological priming in Dutch and its time course in overt speech production using a long-lag priming paradigm. Prime words were compounds that were morphologically related to a picture name (e.g. the word jaszak, 'coat pocket' was used for a picture of a coat; Dutch jas) or form-related monomorphemic words (e.g. jasmijn, 'jasmine'). The morphologically related compounds could be semantically transparent (e.g. eksternest, 'magpie nest') or opaque (e.g. eksteroog, lit. 'magpie eye', 'corn', for a picture of a magpie, Dutch ekster). Behavioral and event-related potential (ERP) data were collected in two sessions. The production of morphologically related and complex words facilitated subsequent picture naming and elicited a reduced N400 compared with unrelated prime words. The effects did not differ for transparent and opaque relations. Mere form overlap between a prime word and a target picture name did not affect picture naming. These results extend previous findings from German to another language and demonstrate the feasibility of measuring cognitive ERP components during overt speech. Furthermore, the results suggest that morphological priming in language production cannot be reduced to semantic and phonological processing. The time course of these priming effects as reflected in the ERP measure is in accordance with a meta-analytic temporal estimate of morphological encoding in speaking [Indefrey, P., & Levelt, W.J.M. (2004). The spatial and temporal signatures of word production components. Cognition, 92, suggesting that morphological relations are encoded at the word form level.
Theories of language production generally describe the segment as the basic unit in phonological encoding (e.g., Dell, 1988; Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999). However, there is also evidence that such a unit might be language specific. Chen, Chen, and Dell (2002), for instance, found no effect of single segments when using a preparation paradigm. To shed more light on the functional unit of phonological encoding in Japanese, a language often described as being mora based, we report the results of 4 experiments using word reading tasks and masked priming. Experiment 1 demonstrated using Japanese kana script that primes, which overlapped in the whole mora with target words, sped up word reading latencies but not when just the onset overlapped. Experiments 2 and 3 investigated a possible role of script by using combinations of romaji (Romanized Japanese) and hiragana; again, facilitation effects were found only when the whole mora and not the onset segment overlapped. Experiment 4 distinguished mora priming from syllable priming and revealed that the mora priming effects obtained in the first 3 experiments are also obtained when a mora is part of a syllable. Again, no priming effect was found for single segments. Our findings suggest that the mora and not the segment (phoneme) is the basic functional phonological unit in Japanese language production planning.
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