Toxic anterior segment syndrome (TASS) is a sterile postoperative inflammatory reaction caused by a noninfectious substance that enters the anterior segment, resulting in toxic damage to intraocular tissues. The process typically starts 12 to 48 hours after cataract/anterior segment surgery, is limited to the anterior segment of the eye, is always Gram stain and culture negative, and usually improves with steroid treatment. The primary differential diagnosis is infectious endophthalmitis. Review of the literature indicates that possible causes of TASS include intraocular solutions with inappropriate chemical composition, concentration, pH, or osmolality; preservatives; denatured ophthalmic viscosurgical devices; enzymatic detergents; bacterial endotoxin; oxidized metal deposits and residues; and factors related to intraocular lenses such as residues from polishing or sterilizing compounds. An outbreak of TASS is an environmental and toxic control issue that requires complete analysis of all medications and fluids used during surgery, as well as complete review of operating room and sterilization protocols.
Suture-fixated PCIOLs can dislocate due to degradation of the suture material over time. The use of larger diameter (9-0 instead of 10-0) polypropylene suture material and placement of the haptic and sutures in the ciliary sulcus to promote attachment of scar tissue may enhance the long-term stability of scleral-fixated PCIOLs.
A 2014 online survey of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery members indicated increasing use of intracameral antibiotic injection prophylaxis compared with a comparable survey from 2007. Forty-seven percent of respondents already used or planned to adopt this measure. One half of all surgeons not using intracameral prophylaxis expressed concern about the risks of noncommercially prepared antibiotic preparations. Overall, the large majority (75%) said they believe it is important to have a commercially available antibiotic approved for intracameral injection. Assuming reasonable cost, the survey indicates that commercial availability of Aprokam (cefuroxime) would increase the overall percentage of surgeons using intracameral antibiotic injection prophylaxis to nearly 84%. Although the majority used topical perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis, and gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin were still the most popular agents, there was a trend toward declining use of fourth-generation fluoroquinolones (60%, down from 81% in 2007) and greater use of topical ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin (21%, up from 9% in 2007).
The tenth annual survey of complications associated with foldable intraocular lenses (IOLs) requiring explantation or secondary intervention was sent to members of the American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery and the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons. Preoperative data about visual acuity, patient signs and symptoms, and complications requiring IOL removal were evaluated. Complications were then tabulated for each of the following major foldable IOL groups: 1-piece (plate) silicone, 1-piece hydrophobic acrylic with haptics, 3-piece silicone, 3-piece hydrophobic acrylic, 3-piece hydrophilic acrylic (hydrogel), 3-piece unknown, multifocal acrylic, and multifocal silicone. One hundred forty-two surveys were returned for evaluation. Dislocation/decentration, incorrect IOL power, glare/optical aberrations, and IOL calcification were the most common reasons for removing foldable IOLs. Good surgical technique, accurate IOL power measurements, and high manufacturing standards for foldable IOL materials and designs are the most important factors in preventing complications.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.