The authors present transmission data, taken at Ka (36 GHz) and W (95 GHz) bands in the millimetre-wave region of the electromagnetic spectrum, for various dressing materials used in the treatment and management of burn wounds. The results show that such materials are highly transparent (typically > 90% transmission) and, in their dry state, will permit the sensing of the surface of the skin through the thick layers (> 2 cm) of different dressings typically applied in medical treatment of burn wounds. Furthermore, the authors present emissivity data, taken at the same frequency bands, for different regions of human skin on the arm and for samples of chicken flesh with and without skin and before and after localised heat treatment. In vivo human skin has a lower emissivity than chicken flesh samples, 0.3-0.5 compared to 0.6-0.7. However, changes in surface emissivity of chicken samples caused by the short-term application of heat are observable through dressing materials, indicating the feasibility of a millimetre-wave imaging to map changes in tissue emissivity for monitoring the state of burn wounds (and possibly other wounds) non-invasively and without necessitating the removal of the wound dressings.
-A free wave, transmission only technique for the determination of complex permittivity in the mm wave band 14 -40 GHz of planar samples of textiles is presented.W ith this method accurate alignment of source and detector horns is not required and time gating methods to reduce or remove standing wave interference between horns is replaced by a data smoothing process. Transmittance measurements are taken at discrete angles of incidence ( 0 to 65 degrees) for TE ( s) polarised mm waves and the data is then smoothed to remove standing wave interference effects between transmitter and receiver horns. The resulting data is fitted to a mathematical model of an infinite planar sheet of isotropic complex permittivity in air and the permittivity parameters that best fit the data to the model are presented. The textiles investigated here are denim ( cotton) and cow leather ( two colours, Red and Beige). This method is shown to be simple to set up, easy to use and fast when compared with other methods such as free wave reflectance and transmittance or FabryPerot cavity and gives results which are accurate enough for most practical applications.Significant difference in the absorption of mm-wave power between the two leather samples is observed. This can be explained by the different chemical composition of the two leather samples, investigated using a Scanning Electron Microscope with Electron Dispersive Spectrometry, which is almost certainly a result of the colouring process employed.
Enhancing the performance of the DDBs (Distributed Database system) can be done by speeding up the computation of the data allocation, leading to higher speed allocation decisions and resulting in smaller data redundancy and shorter processing time. This paper deals with an integrated method for grouping the distributed sites into clusters and customizing the database fragments allocation to the clusters and their sites. We design a high speed clustering and allocating method to determine which fragments would be allocated to which cluster and site so as to maintain data availability and a constant systemic reliability, and evaluate the performance achieved by this method and demonstrate its efficiency by means of tabular and graphical representation. We tested our method over different network sites and found it reduces the data transferred between the sites during the execution time, minimizes the communication cost needed for processing applications, and handles the database queries and meets their future needs.
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