In this study was to evaluate the waters quality of the Murucupi River, located in urban agglomerate area and intense industrial activity in Barcarena City, Pará State. The Arapiranga River in Abaetetuba City was used as control area (Background), next to Barcarena. Was used the Water Quality Index (WQI) based on nine variables analized. Waters quality of the Arapiranga and Murucupi rivers were regular to good and bad to good, respectively. Anthropogenic influence on the Murucupi River was higher, mainly by the disposal of domestic effluents from the urban agglomerate and of the industrial waste tailing basins upstream of this river. Due to its less inhabited environment and further away from the area urban and industrial, the Arapiranga River was more preserved. Waters pollution of around these area is increasingly intense, and restricted its uses for various purposes.
In this work, a techno-economic assessment of the production of bio-oil, coke and gas, via thermo-catalytic pyrolysis followed by distillation, is accomplished. The raw materials were two solid wastes: lipid-based material (residual fat/scum from a fat retention box from the University Restaurant at the Federal University of Pará—UFPA) and a lignin-cellulosic material of açaí seed (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). From the literature, a review is made of the physicochemical analysis of the raw materials, of the bio-oil, and of the chemical composition of the biofuels produced (kerosene, light diesel, and heavy diesel). The bio-oil yields for each experiment of pyrolysis and distillation are also presented and compared with the literature. The economic indicators for the evaluation of the most viable cracking (pyrolysis) and distillation process of bio-oils were: (a) the simple payback criterion, (b) discounted payback, (c) net present value (NPV), (d) internal rate of return (IRR), and (e) index of profitability (IP). The analysis of the indicators showed the economic viability of the lipid-based material and unfeasibility for the açai seed (Euterpe oleracea Mart.). The breakeven point obtained was 1.28 USD/L and the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP) obtained in this work for the biofuels was 1.34 USD/L). The sensibility analysis demonstrated that the pyrolysis and distillation yields are the most important variables to affect the minimum fuel selling price (MFSP).
Catalytic upgrading of vapors from pyrolysis of triglycerides materials is a promising approach to achieve better conversions of hydrocarbons and production of liquid biofuels. Catalytic cracking often shows incomplete conversion due to distillation of initial reaction products and the addition of a second catalytic reactor, whereas pyrolytic vapors are made in contact to a solid catalyst was applied to improve the physical-chemical properties and quality of bio-oil. This work investigated the effect of catalyst content and reaction time by catalytic upgrading from pyrolysis vapors of residual fat at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, on the yields of reaction products, physicochemical properties (density, kinematic viscosity, refractive index, and acid value), and chemical composition of organic liquid products (OLP), over a catalyst fixed bed reactor, in semi pilot scale. Pellets of red mud chemically activated with 1.0 M HCl were used as catalysts. The thermal catalytic cracking of residual fat show OLP yields from 54.4 to 84.88 (wt.%), aqueous phase yields between 2.21 and 2.80 (wt.%), solid phase yields (coke) between 1.30 and 8.60 (wt.%), and gas yields from 11.61 to 34.22 (wt.%). The yields of OLP increases with catalyst content while those of aqueous, gaseous and solid phase decreases. For all experiments, the density, kinematic viscosity, and acid value of OLP decreases with reaction time. The GC-MS of liquid reaction products identified the presence of hydrocarbons and oxygenates. In addition, the hydrocarbon content in OLP increases with reaction time, while those of oxygenates decrease, reaching concentrations of hydrocarbons up to 95.35% (area.). The best results for the physicochemical properties and the maximum hydrocarbon content in OLP were obtained at 450 °C and 1.0 atmosphere, using a catalyst fixed bed reactor, with 5.0% (wt.) red mud pellets activated with 1.0 M HCl as catalyst.
This paper presents the behaviour of a full-scale expanded bed reactor (160 m3) with overlaid anaerobic and aerobic zones used for municipal wastewater treatment. The research was carried out in two experimental steps: anaerobic and anaerobic-aerobic conditions, and the experimental results presented in this paper refer to four months of reactor operation. In the anaerobic condition, after inoculation and 60 days of operation, the reactor treating 3.40 kg CODm(-3)d(-1) for thetaH of 2.69 h, reached mean removal efficiencies of 76% for BOD, 72% for COD, and 80% for TSS, when the effluent presented mean values of 225 mg.L(-1) of COD, 98 mg.L(-1) of BOD and 35 mg.L(-1) of TSS. Under these conditions, for nitrogen loading of 0.27 kgN.m(-3)d(-1), the reactor generated an effluent with mean N-org. of 8 mg.L(-1) and N-ammon. of 37 mg.L(-1), demonstrating high potential of ammonification. For the anaerobic-aerobic condition (118th day) the system was operated with thetaH of 5.38 h presented mean removal efficiencies of 84% for BOD, 79% for COD, 76% for TSS, and 30% for TKN. The reactor's operation time was less than two months, which was not long enough to reach nitrification. Regarding the obtained results, this research confirmed that this reactor is configured as a flexible and adequate alternative for the treatment of sewage, requiring relatively small area and only thetaH of 10 h that can be adjusted to the local circumstances.
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