Correction made after online publication September 22, 2015: Author listing has been revised.Livers retrieved after circulatory death are associated with an increased incidence of primary nonfunction, early allograft dysfunction, and biliary strictures. The authors report a case of preimplant normothermic perfusion of a suboptimal liver from a 57-year-old donor after circulatory death who had been hospitalized for 9 days; predonation alanine transaminase level was 63 IU/L, and the period from withdrawal of life-supporting treatment to circulatory arrest was 150 minutes. After 5 hours of static cold storage, the liver was subject to normothermic machine perfusion with a plasma-free red cell-based perfusate. Perfusate lactate level fell from 7.2 to 0.3 mmol/L within 74 minutes of ex situ perfusion, at which point perfusate alanine transaminase level was 1152 IU/L and urea concentration was 9.4 mmol/L. After 132 minutes, normothermic perfusion was stopped and implantation begun. After transplantation, the patient made an uneventful recovery and was discharged on day 8; liver biochemistry was normal by day 19 and has remained normal thereafter. Donor common bile duct excised at implantation showed preservation of peribiliary glands, and cholangiography 6 months posttransplantation showed no evidence of cholangiopathy. Preimplant ex situ normothermic perfusion of the liver appears to be a promising way to evaluate a marginal liver before transplantation and may modify the response to ischemia.
There is uncertainty about the safety of kidney transplantation during the SARS‐CoV‐2 pandemic due to the risk of donor transmission, nosocomial infection and immunosuppression use. We describe organ donation and transplant practice in the UK and assess whether kidney transplantation conferred a substantial risk of harm. Data from the UK transplant registry were used to describe kidney donation and transplant activity in the UK, and a detailed analysis of short‐term, single‐center, patient results in two periods: during the pre‐pandemic era from 30th December 2019 to 8th March 2020 (“Pre‐COVID era”) and the 9th March 2020 to 19th May 2020 (“COVID era”). Donor and recipient numbers fell by more than half in the COVID compared to the pre‐COVID era in the UK, but there were more kidney transplants performed in our center (42 vs. 29 COVID vs. pre‐COVID respectively). Overall outcomes, including re‐operation, delayed graft function, primary non‐function, acute rejection, length of stay and graft survival were similar between COVID and pre‐COVID era. 6/71 patients became infected with SARS‐CoV‐2 but all were discharged without critical care requirement. Transplant outcomes have remained similar within the COVID period and no serious sequelae of SARS‐CoV‐2 infection were observed in the peri‐transplant period.
Exocrine drainage following pancreas transplantation can be achieved by drainage into the bladder or bowel, the latter typically by direct duodeno-jejunostomy; the use of Roux-en-Y enteric drainage is uncommon. We report a retrospective analysis of a single-centre experience of Roux-en-Y enteric drainage following pancreas transplantation. Over a 14-year period (2001-2015), 204 consecutive adult pancreas transplants were performed (96.6% simultaneous pancreas and kidney transplants), of which 26.0% were from donors after circulatory death (DCD). During a median follow-up of 67 months (range 13-183 months), 14 (6.9%) recipients experienced complications related to their enteric drainage. Complications during follow-up included early enteric anastomotic haemorrhage (five patients), non-anastomotic enteric bleeding (one patient), small bowel obstruction (four patients) and graft duodenal perforation (two within 6 weeks, five beyond 12 months). No recipient lost their graft as a direct result of complications related to enteric drainage. Patient and pancreas graft survival at 1 year was 99.0% and 94.0% and at 5 years 91.3% and 84.9%, respectively. We conclude that Roux-en-Y enteric drainage following pancreas transplantation is a safe and effective procedure and facilitates graft salvage in the event of graft duodenal perforation.
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