Thyroid hormones are vital for the proper functioning of the female reproductive system, since they modulate the metabolism and development of ovarian, uterine and placental tissues. Therefore, hypo- and hyperthyroidism may result in subfertility or infertility in both women and animals. Other well-documented sequelae of maternal thyroid dysfunctions include menstrual/estral irregularity, anovulation, abortion, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, postpartum thyroiditis, and mental retardation in children. Several studies have been carried out involving prospective and retrospective studies of women with thyroid dysfunction, as well as in vivo and in vitro assays of hypo- and hyperthyroidism using experimental animal models and/or ovarian, uterine and placental cell culture. These studies have sought to elucidate the mechanisms by which thyroid hormones influence reproduction to better understand the physiology of the reproductive system and to provide better therapeutic tools for reproductive dysfunctions that originate from thyroid dysfunctions. Therefore, this review aims to summarize and update the available information related to the role of thyroid hormones in the morphophysiology of the ovary, uterus and placenta in women and animals and the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroidism on the female reproductive system.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the gene and immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory mediators involved in the immune activity and the intrauterine trophoblast migration of the placentas in hypothyroid and L-thyroxine (L-T 4 )-treated rats. A total of 144 adult female rats were divided equally into hypothyroid, L-T 4 -treated, and euthyroid (control) groups. Hypothyroidism was induced by daily administration of propylthiouracil. Rats were killed at 0, 10, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 days of gestation. We evaluated the depth of interstitial and endovascular intrauterine trophoblast invasion and the immunohistochemical expression of interferon g (INFy), migration inhibitory factor (MIF), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 (iNOS)). The gene expression of Toll-like receptor 2 (Tlr2) and Tlr4, Infy, Mif, tumor necrosis factor (Tnf (Tnfa)), Il10, Nos2, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (Mmp2) and Mmp9, and placental leptin was also measured in placental disks by real-time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed using an Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test. Hypothyroidism reduced the endovascular and interstitial trophoblast migration, and the expression of TLR4, INFy, MIF, interleukin 10 (IL10), NOS2, MMP2 and MMP9, and placental leptin, while increased the expression of TLR2 (P!0.05). T 4 -treated rats not only increased the expression of IL10 and NOS2 but also reduced the expression of TNF and MIF at 10 days of gestation (P!0.05). However, at 19 days of gestation, expression of INFy and MIF was increased in T 4 -treated group (P!0.05). Excess of T 4 also increased the gene expression of Mmp2 at 10 days of gestation (P!0.05), but reduced the endovascular trophoblast migration at 18 days of gestation (P!0.05). Hypothyroidism and excess of T 4 differentially affect the immune profile and the intrauterine trophoblast migration of the placenta, and these effects are dependent on the gestational period.
The effect of intra-bone injection of differentiated rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) into the femur of osteoporotic female rats was studied. Osteoporosis was induced in Wistar female rats by bilateral ovariectomy. Then, 0.75 million BMMSCs isolated from healthy rats were injected into the femurs of osteoporotic rats. Histomorphometric analysis and histology clearly revealed improvements in the treated group as compared to untreated group. In 2 months, the femurs of treated rats, unlike untreated rats, showed trabecular bone percentage almost similar to the femurs from control healthy rats. To confirm the origin of newly formed bone, the experiment was repeated with BMMSCs isolated from green fluorescent protein transgenic rats. Confocal microscopy demonstrated green fluorescent protein-positive cells at the surface of trabecular bone of the treated rats. We investigated in vitro osteogenic differentiation of BMMSCs isolated from osteoporotic rats by studying alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen synthesis, and the ability to form mineralized nodules. Osteoporotic BMMSCs showed less differentiation capabilities as compared to those isolated from healthy rats. The results clearly demonstrated the importance of BMMSCs in osteoporosis and that the disease can be treated by injection of BMMSCs.
The objective of this study was to evaluate fetal weight, histomorphometric changes and proliferative activity, apoptosis and angiogenesis of the placenta in rats with hypothyroidism. Thirty-six adult female rats were divided into two groups with 18 animals each: control and hypothyroidism. Hypothyroidism was induced by daily administration of propylthiouracil (1 mg/animal). The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at 14 or 19 days of gestation. The control group received a placebo. The number and weight of fetuses and the rate of fetal death was determined, as well as the morphometric characteristics, the immunohistochemical expression of cell division control protein 47 (CDC)-47 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the number of apoptotic cells in the placental disk. The data were analysed by Mann-Whitney U test. Hypothyroidism reduced the weight of fetuses and of the uterus and placenta (P<0.05), altered the thickness of the placental labyrinth and spongiotrophoblast (P<0.05), increased the population of glycogen cells in the spongiotrophoblast (P<0.05), interfered with the vascular development of the placental labyrinth and decreased VEGF expression (P<0.05), reduced the expression of CDC-47 and cellularity and increased the apoptotic rate in the placental disk (P<0.05). We conclude that hypothyroidism affects fetal weight by altering the proliferative activity, apoptosis and vascularisation of the placenta.
Bioactive glass/polymer composites are promising materials for bone tissue engineering. The present research group has developed porous hybrid scaffolds comprised of 50% polyvinyl alcohol/50% bioactive glass with a 70%SiO(2)-30%CaO composition. Prior studies have also shown the adequate structural and mechanical behavior of these scaffolds. As such, the present study investigates the in vitro and in vivo osteogenic potential of the scaffold, using mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from the bone marrow of female rats. MTT, alkaline phosphatase activity, collagen secretion and Von Kossa staining were conducted to evaluate the differentiation ability of MSC in an osteogenic medium. The in vitro results indicate an increase in both cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation when the hybrid material is present. Von Kossa staining showed a progressive increase in mineralization nodules, coupled with time differentiation. For the in vivo evaluation, three groups were studied: (1) group implanted with the hybrid scaffold, (2) group implanted with scaffold colonized by non-differentiated MSC and (3) group implanted with scaffold colonized by differentiated MSC. The scaffolds were subcutaneously implanted on the back of Wistar rats for 1-8 weeks, and histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed. The tissue ingrowth proved to be higher in the groups colonized by MSC in the first week. In the second week, only the hybrid colonized by differentiated MSC presented a larger percentage of connective tissue. In the third, fourth and eighth weeks, all groups presented 70% of the hybrid scaffold filled with tissue. However, only the group with differentiated MSC presented some form of osteoid tissue, indicating that the hybrid scaffold with differentiated MSC does indeed present osteogenic potential.
This report describes the first case of idiopathic hypertrophic osteopathy (HO) in a cat. No causes for the bone pathology were found following evaluation of the physical and laboratory examinations (complete blood count, albumin, creatinine, urea, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyltransferase and urinalysis), and after histopathological evaluation of organs at necropsy. Based on the radiographic, clinical and anatomopathological findings, idiopathic HO was diagnosed.
Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the dose-dependent effects of triiodothyronine (T3) on the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs). Methods: MSCs that express CD73, CD54 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) and CD90 were cultured in triplicate (1 × 105/well) in osteogenic medium with T3 (1, 10, 103 or 105 pM) or without T3 (control) for 7, 14 and 21 days. Alkaline phosphatase activity, conversion of MTT into formazan crystals, collagen synthesis, collagen maturation, the number of mineralized nodules and their diameters were all determined, and the means were compared by the Student-Newman-Keuls test. Results: A dose of 105 pM T3 resulted in a negative effect on MSC osteogenic differentiation, with less collagen synthesis. The 1 pM T3 dose resulted in greater collagen synthesis and alkaline phosphatase activity and more mineralized nodules than in the control group, similar to the 10 pM dose. Nevertheless, the 10 pM dose demonstrated better results than the 1 pM dose with regard to MSC osteogenic differentiation, with greater MTT reduction, better collagen maturation and a larger mean diameter of mineralized nodules. Conclusions: The effect of T3 on MSC differentiation is dose-dependent, with the 10 pM dose promoting better bone marrow MSC osteogenic differentiation.
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