Ligand-mediated targeting of drugs especially in anticancer drug delivery is an effective approach. Dendrimers, due to unique surface topologies, can be a choice in this context. In the present study, PAMAM (polyamidoamine) dendrimers up to fourth generation were synthesized and characterized through infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometric, and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) techniques. Primary amines present on the dendritic surface were conjugated through folic acid and folic acid-PEG (poly(ethylene glycol))-NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) conjugates. Tumor in mice was induced through the use of KB cell culture. Prepared dendritic conjugates were evaluated for the anticancer drug delivery potential using 5-FU (5-fluorouracil) in tumor-bearing mice. Approximately 31% of 5-FU was loaded in folate-PEG-dendritic conjugates. Results indicated that folate-PEG-dendrimer conjugate was significantly safe and effective in tumor targeting compared to a non-PEGylated formulation. Tailoring of dendrimers via PEG-folic acid reduced hemolytic toxicity, which led to a sustained drug release pattern as well as highest accumulation in the tumor area.
Nanotechnology is a developing branch of pharmaceutical sciences wherein the particles extend in nanosizes and turn out to be more responsive when contrasted with their unique counter parts. In the past numerous years, the utilization of synthetic concoctions and physical strategies were in mould; however, the acknowledgment of their toxic impacts on human well-being and condition influenced serious world view for the researchers. Presently, green synthesis is the watch word for the combination of nanoparticles (NPs) by plants or their metabolites. This innovation is particularly compensating as far as decreasing the poisonous quality caused by the conventionally integrated NPs. In this review, we cover the perspectives by which metal particles can be integrated from green methods in the perspective of green methods utilized in the NPs combination. In the green strategies, plant metabolites and natural substances are utilized to orchestrate the NPs for the pharmaceutical and other applications. Some characterization methods are also reviewed along with applications of NPs.
RNA interference (RNAi)-based therapeutic approaches are under vibrant scrutinisation to seek cancer cure. siRNA suppress expression of the carcinogenic genes by targeting the mRNA expression. However, in vivo systemic siRNA therapy is hampered by the barriers such as poor cellular uptake, instability under physiological conditions, off-target effects and possible immunogenicity. To overcome these challenges, systemic siRNA therapy warrants the development of clinically suitable, safe, and effective drug delivery systems. Herein, we review the barriers, potential siRNA drug delivery systems, and application of siRNA in clinical trials for cancer therapy. Further research is required to harness the full potential of siRNA as a cancer therapeutic.
Silver nanoparticles are particles in the size ranging between 1 and 100 nm. The two major methods used for synthesis of silver nanoparticle are the physical and chemical methods with the disadvantage that they are expensive and can also have toxicity. Biological method is being used as an expedient alternative, as this approach is environment-friendly and less toxic and it includes plant extracts, microorganism, fungi, etc. The major applications of silver nanoparticles in the medical field include diagnostic applications and therapeutic applications, apart from its antimicrobial activity. Due to their nanotoxicity, AgNPs have a several drawbacks too. This review presents a complete view of the mechanism of action, synthesis, the pharmacokinetics of silver nanoparticles, different formulations of AgNPs used in biomedical applications, infertility management, antibacterial effects, skin damage, burns, cancer treatment, etc. and various applications of silver nanoparticles together with the possible toxicological challenge.
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