Highlights d Energy metabolism shifts from lipolysis to ketolysis in damaged kidneys d mTORC1 hyperactivation leads to impaired renal lipolysis and subsequent renal damage d Ketone body supplementation ameliorates renal damage by blocking mTORC1 signaling d SGLT2 inhibitor-mediated renoprotection involves mTORC1 inhibition by ketone bodies
SummaryExtending healthy lifespan is an emerging issue in an aging society. This study was designed to identify a dietary method of extending lifespan, promoting renoprotection, and preventing muscle weakness in aged mice, with a focus on the importance of the balance between dietary essential (EAAs) and nonessential amino acids (NEAAs) on the dietary restriction (DR)‐induced antiaging effect. Groups of aged mice were fed ad libitum, a simple DR, or a DR with recovering NEAAs or EAAs. Simple DR significantly extended lifespan and ameliorated age‐related kidney injury; however, the beneficial effects of DR were canceled by recovering dietary EAA but not NEAA. Simple DR prevented the age‐dependent decrease in slow‐twitch muscle fiber function but reduced absolute fast‐twitch muscle fiber function. DR‐induced fast‐twitch muscle fiber dysfunction was improved by recovering either dietary NEAAs or EAAs. In the ad libitum‐fed and the DR plus EAA groups, the renal content of methionine, an EAA, was significantly higher, accompanied by lower renal production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenous antioxidant. Finally, removal of methionine from the dietary EAA supplement diminished the adverse effects of dietary EAA on lifespan and kidney injury in the diet‐restricted aged mice, which were accompanied by a recovery in H2S production capacity and lower oxidative stress. These data imply that a dietary approach could combat kidney aging and prolong lifespan, while preventing muscle weakness, and suggest that renal methionine metabolism and the trans‐sulfuration pathway could be therapeutic targets for preventing kidney aging and subsequently promoting healthy aging.
Saturated fatty acid (SFA)-related lipotoxicity is a pathogenesis of diabetes-related renal proximal tubular epithelial cell (PTEC) damage, closely associated with a progressive decline in renal function. This study was designed to identify a free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism-related enzyme that can protect PTECs from SFA-related lipotoxicity. Among several enzymes involved in FFA metabolism, we identified stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), whose expression level significantly decreased in the kidneys of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetic mice, compared with non-diabetic mice. SCD1 is an enzyme that desaturates SFAs, converting them to monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs), leading to the formation of neutral lipid droplets. In culture, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of SCD1 or MUFA treatment significantly ameliorated SFA-induced apoptosis in PTECs by enhancing intracellular lipid droplet formation. In contrast, siRNA against SCD1 exacerbated the apoptosis. Both overexpression of SCD1 and MUFA treatment reduced SFA-induced apoptosis via reducing endoplasmic reticulum stress in cultured PTECs. Thus, HFD-induced decrease in renal SCD1 expression may play a pathogenic role in lipotoxicity-induced renal injury, and enhancing SCD1-mediated desaturation of SFA and subsequent formation of neutral lipid droplets may become a promising therapeutic target to reduce SFA-induced lipotoxicity. The present study provides a novel insight into lipotoxicity in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy.
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