The relation between hyperglycemia and diabetic neuropathy has already been demonstrated in some studies. Among the theories proposed for its etiology the oxidative stress stands out. The performance of nitric oxide as a link between the metabolic and vascular neuropathogenic factors that triggers the diabetic neuropathy has already been put forward. This study aimed to assess the quantification and measurements of the cell body profile area (CBPA) of NADPH-diaphorase reactive (NADPH-dp) myenteric neurons of the jejunum of diabetic rats (induced by streptozotocin) supplemented with Ascorbic Acid (AA). These changes in the myenteric neurons seem to be related to the gastrointestinal disturbances observed in diabetes mellitus (DM). Twenty male Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) were distributed in 4 groups (n=5): controls (C), control supplemented (CS), diabetic (D), and diabetic suplemented (DS). DM was induced by estreptozotocin (50mg/kg body wt). One week after the induction and confirmation of the DM (glycemia exam), animals of the groups CS and DS received 50mg of AA three times a week by gavage. After 90 days of experiment, the animals were anesthetized with lethal thiopental dose (40mg/kg) and the collected jejunum processed for the histochemistry NADPH-diaphorase technique. Whole-mount preparations were obtained for quantitative and morphometric analysis of the myenteric neurons. A quantity of jejunum neurons in the Group D (96±7.5) was not different (P>0.05) from Group DS (116±8.08), C (92±9.7), and CS (81±5.4), but in Group DS the quantity was higher (P<0.05) than in Group C and CS. The CBPA of neurons from Group D (189.50±2.68µm²) and DS (195.92±3.75µm²) were lower (P<0.05) than from Group C (225.13±4.37µm²) and CS (210.23±3.15µm²). The streptozotocin-induced DM did not change the jejunum-ileum area, the jejunum myenteric plexus space organization and the density of NADPH-dp neurons. The 50g AA-supplementation, three times a week, during 90 days, did not decrease hyperglycemia; however, it had a neuroprotective effect on the myenteric neurons, minimizing the increase on the CBPA of NADPH-dp neurons and increasing the amount of NADPD-dp neurons.
This study aimed to evaluate the effects of regular physical activity on the morphology of the myenteric plexus of the duodenum in rats during the ageing process. To this end, 45 Wistar rats were divided into three groups: C (sedentary - 6 months old), S (sedentary - 12 months old) and T (trained - 12 months old). The animals of group S were given with a physical activity programme consisting of a 10-min-treadmill workout once a week. The animals of group T were submitted to the physical activity programme five times a week. Their duodenums were collected and submitted to the techniques of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)-diaphorase enzyme histochemistry for whole-mount preparations and transmission electron microscopy. No differences in the constitution of the myenteric plexuses were found when the sedentary and trained groups were compared with the control group. The ultrastructural features were similar for the three groups. However, it was verified that the physical activity of the trained animals resulted in a similar myenteric neuron morphology to that of the adult animals (6 months old), thereby confirming its beneficial effect, as the sedentary animals had larger alterations in the collagen fibrils and the basal membrane that occur through ageing. The quantitative analysis showed that the NADH-diaphorase positive neurons decreased with ageing and increased with physical activity (P > 0.05). No significant alteration (P > 0.05) in the neuronal profile area of the NADH-diaphorase positive neurons has been observed with ageing.
This study describes the implications of cardiac ventricular microscopy in Chelonia mydas relating to its ability to dive. For this work, 11 specimens of the marine turtle species C. mydas found dead on the coast of Rio Grande do Norte (Northeast Brazil) were used. After necropsy, fragments of the cardiac ventricular wall were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde solution for 24 h and then subjected to routine processing for light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ventricle in this species is formed by the epicardium, myocardium and endocardium. The subepicardial layer consists of highly vascularised connective tissue that emits septa to reinforce the myocardium surface. There is an abundant and diffuse subepicardial nerve plexus shown by immunostaining technique. The thickness of the spongy myocardium and the nature of its trabeculae varied between the heart chambers. The endocardium shows no characteristic elements of the heart conduction system. The valves have a hyaline cartilage skeleton, coated by dense irregular connective tissues characterised by elastic fibres. These findings in the green turtle ventricular microscopy are related to hypoxia resistance during diving.
ResumoO objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a inervação do músculo diafragma em gatos, proveniente dos nervos intercostais, contradizendo diversos autores que afirmam ser este músculo inervado apenas pelos ramos dos nervos frênicos direito e esquerdo. Foi observado que existe a frequência de nervos dispostos entre o 8º e o 11º espaços intercostais.Palavras-chave: Gato. Diafragma. Nervos intercostais.
AbstractThe knowledge of organism's anatomy is essential to conduct any experiment or study with itself. Based on that, we decided to analyze and study in details the innervation of the diaphragm muscle from intercostal nerves in cats. It goes beyond other authors' analysis that describes only the innervation from phrenic nerves. Despite we have got a range of results, we observed a major frequency of eighth to tenth intercostal nerves going to diaphragm muscle.
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