This study aimed to evaluate the association between pretreatment vitamin D (VD) deficiency with breast cancer prognostic features in Brazilian postmenopausal women. An analytical cross sectional study was conducted with 192 women, aged 45-75 years, attended at University Hospital. Women with recent diagnosis of breast cancer, in amenorrhea >12months and age ≥45 years, without medication use or clinical conditions that interfere with VD values were included. Clinical and anthropometric data were collected. Serum level of 25 hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in all patients until 20days after breast cancer diagnosis, and was classified as normal (≥30ng/mL), insufficiency (20-29ng/mL) and deficiency (<20ng/mL). Data on breast cancer (histopathological type, grade, tumor stage, lymph node status), hormone status (estrogen receptor, ER, progesterone receptor, PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2) and epithelial proliferative activity (Ki-67) were collected. For statistical analysis, the t-student test, the Gamma Distribution (asymmetric variables), the chi-square test and the logistic regression (OR-odds ratio) were used. The median 25(OH)D level was 25.8ng/mL (range 12.0-59.2ng/mL). Sufficient vitamin D levels were detected in 65 patients (33.9%), whereas insufficient levels in 92 patients (47.9%), and deficient levels in 35 patients (18.2%). Participants with insufficient and deficient 25(OH)D levels had a higher proportion of tumors with a high grade and locally advanced and metastatic disease, more positive lymph node, a lower proportion of ER, PR positives tumors and higher Ki-67(p<0.05). Patients with normal vitamin D had a higher frequency of luminal A (47.7%) and luminal B (32.2%) tumors when compared to patients with vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Furthermore, all cases of triple negative were detected in women with low VD levels. Multivariate analysis, after adjusting for age, time since menopause and BMI, showed that insufficient and deficient level of vitamin D were significantly associated with negative estrogen receptor (OR 3.77 CI 95% 1.76-8.09 and OR 3.99 CI 95% 1.83-8.68), high Ki-67 (OR 2.50, CI 95% 1.35-4.63, and OR 2.62, CI 95% 1.40-4.98), and positive axillary lymph node status (OR 1.59, CI 95% 1.03-2.33, and OR 1.58, CI 95% 1.02-2.92) respectively. In Brazilian postmenopausal women with breast cancer, there was an association between vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency and tumors with worse prognostic features. Low vitamin D levels were shown to be a risk factor for ER negative tumors, with positive axilla and a higher rate of cell proliferation.
RESUMO -A análise do padrão de deposição de serapilheira foi empregada como bioindicador para comparar diferentes estádios de regeneração de floresta secundária, capoeira e pasto e um modelo de plantio adensado de revegetação. LITTER DEPOSITION AS BIOINDICATOR OF RESTORATION IN A DENSE REVEGETATION SYSTEM
ABSTRACT. Forest plantations may minimize the effects of deforestation in the Amazon. However, there are differences among species in terms of their influences on soil recovery. The effects of monospecific plantations of Acacia mangium, Dipteryx odorata, Jacaranda copaia, Parkia decussata,and Swietenia macrophylla, and areas of pasture and native forest on the chemical soil attributes of the Brazilian Amazon were evaluated. One bulked soil sample was collected per plot (0.00-0.05, 0.05-0.10, and 0.10-0.30 m; three plots of 128 m 2 ) in each area. No significant differences in most of the soil attributes were observed among the forest plantations. However, soil K + and P were higher in the Swietenia macrophylla plantations, while higher values of Ca 2+ , sum of bases, and pH occurred in Jacaranda copaia plantations. In the native forest, the pH, and P content were lower, whereas the soil organic matter (SOM) content, soil organic carbon (SOC) content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), N content, H+Al content, and Al 3+ content were higher than in the plantations. The lowest values of SOM, SOC, CEC, K
ABSTRACT.Internal retranslocation is an important mechanism for nutrient conservation in plants, which depends on different factors. However, there are little data about this subject, especially on tropical forest species. This study aimed to evaluate the macronutrient retranslocation dynamic and the influence of ecological (P: pioneer x NP: non-pioneer) and phenological (ND: non-deciduous x D: semideciduous / deciduous) characteristics on the macronutrient content of leaves of five tree species on monospecific plantations in the Brazilian Amazon: Acacia mangium Willd., Parkia decussata Ducke, Dipteryx odorata (Aublet) Willd., Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don and Swietenia macrophylla King. Photosynthetically active green leaves and senescent leaves (leaf litter) were collected. Retranslocation was estimated through an equation proposed by Attiwill, Guthrie and Leuning (1978). The pioneer species presented higher foliar contents of N; the non-pioneer species presented higher contents of K, Ca and S; and the results were inconclusive for P and Mg. The deciduous species presented higher foliar contents of K and of P, whereas the foliar contents of N, Ca, Mg and S were virtually identical between the phenological groups. The internal retranslocation of foliar nutrients in pioneer and non-deciduous species was higher than that of nonpioneer and deciduous species.Keywords: ecological groups, litterfall, nutrient cycling, phenological groups, plant nutrition. Retranslocação de nutrientes em espécies florestais na Amazônia Brasileira RESUMO.A retranslocação interna é um importante mecanismo de conservação de nutrientes nas plantas, que depende de diferentes fatores. Contudo, ainda são incipientes os dados desta natureza, principalmente para espécies florestais tropicais. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a dinâmica de retranslocação de macronutrientes e a influência dos grupos ecológico (P: pioneiras x NP: não-pioneiras) e fenológico (ND: não-decíduas x D: semidecíduas / decíduas) nas concentrações foliares de macronutrientes em cinco espécies arbóreas em monocultivo na Amazônia brasileira: Acacia mangium Willd., Parkia decussata Ducke, Dipteryx odorata (Aublet) Willd., Jacaranda copaia (Aubl.) D. Don e Swietenia macrophylla King. Para tanto, foram coletadas folhas verdes fotossinteticamente ativas e folhas da serapilheira. A retranslocação foi estimada segundo a equação de Attiwill, Guthrie e Leuning (1978). As espécies pioneiras apresentaram maiores concentrações foliares de N; as não-pioneiras apresentaram maiores concentrações de K, Ca e S; e os resultados foram inconclusivos para P e Mg. As concentrações foliares de K e de P foram maiores nas espécies decíduas, enquanto que as de N, Ca, Mg e S foram praticamente idênticas entre os grupos fenológicos. No geral, as espécies pioneiras e as não-decíduas foram mais eficientes na retranslocação de nutrientes.Palavras-chave: grupos ecológicos, serapilheira, ciclagem de nutrientes, grupos fenológicos, nutrição de plantas.
Resumo Este trabalho trata da ação política dos Anonymous, principal expressão do ativismo hacker atual, argumentando que o hacktivismo se configura como uma forma de resistência política nas sociedades de controle. Para isso, centra-se no estudo da faceta brasileira e hacktivista do coletivo. A fim de ressaltar seu caráter político, recorre às principais expressões dohacking na literatura. Descreve motivações, métodos e a ética de sua ação política, tendo como base uma análise comparativa de duas operações deflagradas por Anonymous brasileiros em 2012: #OpWeeksPayment e #OpGlobo. Por fim, identifica quatro de suas principais formas de engajamento político: promoção do anonimato; “evangelização”; formação de redes distribuídas; e o fato de o coletivo exibir e possibilitar várias formas de ações políticas.
Planting of forest species of timber interest helps to reduce the deforestation pressure on the Amazon forest, promotes sustainable development of the producing region and generates ecological benefits. The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival rate and growth of four native (Swietenia macrophylla, Parkia decussata, Dipteryx odorata and Jacaranda copaia) and one exotic (Acacia mangium) species in monospecific plantations (spacing of 2 x 2 m) established on areas previously used for grazing, in Itacoatiara, State of Amazonas, Brazil. When the trees were four years old, we collected biometric data )], e dados qualitativos obtidos por diagnose visual [taxa de sobrevivência (S; %), estado nutricional (NS, G: bom; D: deficiente; %) e estado fitossanitário (PS, S: satisfatório; NS: não-satisfatório; %). Para cada espécie considerouse três parcelas de 128 m 2 , cada uma com 32 plantas. Jacaranda copaia, seguida de Dipteryx odorata e Parkia decussata, foram as espécies mais recomendadas para o plantio em áreas com condições edafoclimáticas semelhantes às do presente trabalho, devido ao seu melhor desempenho para a maioria das variáveis.
This study aimed to evaluate the use of litterfall as an indicator of fragmentation in a Semi-deciduous Seasonal Forest in Além Paraíba, MG, Brazil. Litterfall was collected monthly for one year in conical collectors (0.25 m 2 of surface), located at seven distances from the forest edge: 10, 30, 60, 100, 160, 250 and 350 m. The litterfall was dried in an oven and separated (leaves, branches, reproductive structures, miscellaneous). Litterfall was greater near the forest edge, probably due to a predominance of species with high leaf deposition (pioneers and deciduous). Litterfall had peaks at the beginning of the rainy season for the average obtained from the seven distances from the forest edge. The edge effect did not clearly influence the contribution of the fractions or the seasonality of total litterfall.
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