Introduction. Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) related systemic oxidative stress is a well-known entity but the underlying mechanisms are not clearly described. Our aim was to investigate the relation between the oxidative stress indices, inflammatory markers, and phosphorylcholine-coated (PCC) ECC systems. Patients and Methods. Thirty-two consecutive coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) cases were randomly assigned to Group I (PCC, n = 18) and Group II (noncoated, n = 14) ECC circuits. Total Antioxidant Status (TAS), Total Oxidant Status (TOS), Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1β (IL-β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-8 (IL-8), Interleukin-10 (IL-10), and Procalcitonin (PCT) levels were measured at 5 different time points. The association between the oxidative indices levels and PCC system used was analyzed. Results. In Group I TOS and TAS statuses were increased at T1, T2, T3, and T4, while IL-10 and TNF-α levels accompanied those raises only at T2 (Group I-Group II, 4.73 ± 2.04 versus 2.79 ± 0.63, p = 0.002, and 30.56 ± 8.11 versus 23.97 ± 7.8, p = 0.031, resp.). In contrast, mean TAS and TOS levels were similar to baseline at all time points in Group II but IL-6 and IL-8 levels were increased at T2 (Group I-Group II, 16.84 ± 5.63 versus 44.81 ± 17.0, p = 0.001, and 38.88 ± 9.8 versus 46.14 ± 9.25, p = 0.038, resp.). Conclusion. Even coated ECC systems are still incapable of attenuating the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).
The aortopulmonary window is a communication between the ascending aorta and the pulmonary trunk in the presence of two separate arterial valves. This uncommon congenital anomaly is reported rarely in the literature. We present here our experience with 16 patients, emphasizing the importance of early closure of the defect by a transaortic approach. We performed surgery on 16 patients over a period of 13 years using a transaortic approach under cardiopulmonary bypass. The median age of the patients at the time of operation was 6.5 months, with a range from 1 month to 11 years. Preoperative pulmonary arterial systolic pressure ranged from 30 to 100 mmHg. Associated cardiac anomalies were present in 7 of the patients, and were repaired at the same stage. The defect was between the ascending aorta and the proximal pulmonary trunk in 13 patients, and between the ascending aorta and the distal pulmonary trunk, with overriding of the orifice of the right pulmonary artery, in 3 patients. For closure, we used a patch of 0.4 mm Gore-Tex in 11, and gluteraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium in 5 of the patients. One patient died during surgery. The mean follow-up period for the surviving 15 patients was 52.2 months, with a range from 12 to 130 months. All the patients were in good condition during the follow-up, and no residual defects have been detected. Aortopulmonary window is a rare congenital cardiac anomaly, which can be repaired with very good operative results if surgery is performed before the development of irreversible pulmonary hypertension. We advise early correction of the defect with a transaortic patch, repairing all associated cardiac anomalies at the time of diagnosis.
Radiation-induced heart disease must be considered in any patient with cardiac symptomatology who had prior mediastinal irradiation. Radiation can affect all the structures in the heart, including the pericardium, the myocardium, the valves and the conduction system. In addition to these pathologies, coronary artery disease following mediastinal radiotherapy is the most actual cardiac pathology as it may cause cardiac emergencies requiring interventional cardiological or surgical interventions. Case A 36-year-old man was admitted to the clinic with unstable angina pectoris of one month duration. The patient had no coronary artery disease risk factor. The history of the patient revealed that he had mediastinal radiotherapy due to Hodgkin's disease at 10-year of age. Coronary arteriography showed total occlusion of the left anterior descending artery and 70% stenosis of the proximal right coronary artery. Both arteries are dilated with placement of two stents. Control coronary arteriography at the end of the first year showed patency of both stents and the patient is free of symptoms. Previous radiotherapy to the mediastinum should be considered as a risk factor for the development of premature coronary artery disease. Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty with stent placement or surgical revascularization are the preferred methods of treatment. Preoperative assessment of internal thoracic arteries should be considered prior to surgery. As the radiation therapy is currently the standard treatment for a number of mediastinal malignancies, routine screening of these patients and optimal cardiac prevention during radiotherapy are the only ways to minimize the incidence of radiation-induced heart disease.
Definitive repair of TOF patients with abnormal coronary arteries can be performed in early childhood, but care should be taken to leave at least 1 cm of myocardium between the sutureline and the abnormal coronary artery. Detailed evaluation of the patients preoperatively is mandatory to identify the strategy and timing of the operation.
Despite advances in surgical techniques, myocardial protection, and management protocols, approximately 1% of patients undergoing open heart operations still need mechanical circulatory support for severe cardiac dysfunction. The Biomedicus centrifugal pump, available in most cardiovascular centers, is a highly effective and relatively inexpensive system compared to other more sophisticated devices for the same purpose. Of 10 patients aged 5 to 61 years who were supported for 22 to 168 hours with a Biomedicus centrifugal pump, 7 (70%) were weaned from support, there was one hospital death, and 6 patients were discharged from hospital. Two sudden deaths occurred in the first 8 months after discharge. Four patients (40%) were still alive after follow-up of 11-55 months, with no restriction in their daily activities. The centrifugal pump is a very cost-effective support system with survival rates comparable to those of more sophisticated devices in short-term ventricular assistance.
PurposeSeveral alternative procedures have been proposed to achieve complete revascularization in the presence of diffuse left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) disease. With the extensive use of internal thoracic artery grafts in coronary artery bypass procedures, sequential anastomosis of the left internal thoracic artery (LITA) to LAD has gained popularity in these challenging cases. The long term results of sequential LITA to LAD anstomosis were examined in this study.Patients and MethodsIn order to determine the long term results of the sequential revascularization of LAD by LITA graft, 41 out of 49 patients operated between January 2001 and December 2005 were selected for control coronary arteriography. The median period for control coronary arteriography was 64 months.ResultsSeventy five anastomoses were found to be fully patent (91,46%) among the 82 sequential LITA anastomoses (41 LITA grafts) on the LAD at a median follow-up period of 64 months (53 to 123 months). Among the 41 LITA grafts used for this purpose, 36 were found intact (complete patency of the proximal and distal anastomoses) (87,8%). Two LITA grafts (4 anastomoses) were found to be totally occluded (4,87%). The proximal anastomosis of the LITA graft was observed to be 90% stenotic in one patient (1,21%). In one patient tight stenosis of the distal anastomosis line was observed (1,21%), while in another patient 70% narrowing of LITA lumen after the proximal anastomosis was detected (1,21%).ConclusionWe strongly beleive that sequential LITA grafting of LAD is a safe alternative in the presence of severe LAD disease to achieve complete revascularization of the anterior myocardium with patency rates not much differing from conventional single LITA to LAD anastomosis.
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