The lipopeptides of Bacillus are small metabolites that contain a cyclic structure formed by 7-10 amino acids (including 2-4 D-amino acids) and a beta-hydroxy fatty acid with 13-19 C atoms. These lipopeptides exhibit a variety of biological activities, including interactions with biofilms, and anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-virus, and anti-platelet properties. The multiple activities of lipopeptides have stimulated significant interest in the exploitation of these lipopeptides for use as antibiotics, feed additives, anti-tumor agents, urgent thrombolytic therapeutic agents, and drug delivery systems. Understanding the natural function of these structurally diverse lipopeptides in Bacillus provides insight into microbial regulatory programs and is required for efficient development of more effective products. Currently, there is still insufficient knowledge of the direct target of these lipopeptides, and continued efforts are needed to enhance their biosynthesis efficiency for industrial applications.
AgNPs have great potential in the medical and food industries, due to their antimicrobial, anticancer, anti-HIV, and catalytic activities. However, the observed in vitro and in vivo toxicity poses considerable challenges in the synthesis and application of AgNPs.
Polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB), a broad spectrum disinfectant against many pathogens, was used as a stabilizing ligand for the synthesis of fairly uniform silver nanoparticles. The particles formed were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, dynamic light scattering, electrophoretic mobility, and TEM to measure their morphology and surface chemistry. PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles were then evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against a gram-negative bacterial strain, Escherichia coli. These silver nanoparticles were found to have about 100 times higher bacteriostatic and bactericidal activities, compared to the previous reports, due to the combined antibacterial effect of silver nanoparticles and PHMB. In addition to other applications, PHMB-functionalized silver nanoparticles would be extremely useful in textile industry due to the strong interaction of PHMB with cellulose fabrics.
Lactic acid bacteria have been categorized as probiotics and play a crucial role in human health by stimulating the supply of nutrients, shaping the immune system, and preventing the colonization of pathogenic microbes. This study investigated the mechanisms for the action of three potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains: Lactobacillus casei SR1, Lactobacillus casei SR2, and Lactobacillus paracasei SR4 isolated from human breast milk. These Lactobacillus strains were identified via 16S DNA sequencing and characterized via biochemical assays including acid resistance, bile resistance, antioxidant activity, and antibiotic susceptibility. The bioactivity of the cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) secreted by these strains on the cervix cancer (HeLa) cell line was also evaluated via cytotoxicity assay and apoptosis analysis. The mechanism of anticancer activity was also investigated via RT-qPCR and western blotting. The results demonstrated that these newly isolated Lactobacillus strains from human milk displayed noticeable probiotic characteristics such as excellent antibiotic susceptibility, outstanding antioxidant activity, and promising resistance to low pH and high concentration of bile salts. The results of the conducted bioactivity assays verified that the CFCSs had acceptable anticancer effects on cervix cancer (HeLa) cells by upregulating the expression of apoptotic genes BAX, BAD, caspase3, caspase8, and caspase9 and by downregulating the expression of the BCl-2 gene. Overall, these results indicate that the Lactobacillus strains isolated from human breast milk could be considered as a topical medication with a potential therapeutic index due to their efficacy against cervix cancer cells.
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