BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS:
Post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) is the most common and serious complication of ERCPs. Our aim was to estimate the nationwide incidence, temporal trends and mortality of PEP and establish its risk-factors in the United States.
This was a retrospective cohort study analyzing the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) data from 2011 to 2017 using ICD codes. The primary outcomes were to assess the trends of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) and the predictors of occurrence of PEP. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital mortality, length of stay and ICU admission.
Of the 1,222,467 adult patients who underwent inpatient ERCP during the study period, 55,225 (4.5%) developed post-ERCP pancreatitis. The hospital admission rate of PEP increased by 13.3% from 7,735 in 2011 to 8,920 in 2017 (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.04-1.46; p = 0.016). The overall rate of mortality increased from 2.75% of PEP cases in 2011 to 4.38% in 2017 (OR: 1.62, 95% CI 1.10-2.38, p = 0.014). Multiple patient-related (alcohol use, cocaine use, obesity, chronic kidney disease, heart failure), procedure-related (therapeutic ERCP, sphincterotomy, pancreatic duct stent placement, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction) and hospital-related factors (teaching hospitals, hospitals located in West and Mid-west) that impact the occurrence of PEP were identified.
Our study shows a rising hospital admission rate and mortality associated with PEP in the United States. This calls for a greater recognition of this life-threatening complication and amelioration of its risk-factors, whenever possible.
Ibrutinib is a Bruton tyrosine kinase (BTK) inhibitor that has shown significant efficacy in patients with lymphoid carcinomas, mostly chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is not a common infectious complication associated with ibrutinib. To increase the clinical awareness about this rare entity, we present the first case of CMV proctitis in an immunocompromised host who was being treated with ibrutinib. An 88-year old female with a history of CLL treated with ibrutinib presented with two days of painless hematochezia. Physical examination revealed cachexia and temporal wasting; bright red blood was observed on the digital rectal examination. A complete blood count demonstrated a significant decrease in hemoglobin from her baseline. Subsequent colonoscopy revealed a circumferential rectal ulcer; biopsy of the rectal ulcer was positive for CMV immunostain. The patient was treated with intravenous ganciclovir and later transitioned to valganciclovir for a total of 21 days of treatment. Her condition resolved, and she was found doing well at the follow-up visit.
Hepatic hydrothorax (HH) is an infrequent but debilitating and therapeutically challenging complication of advanced liver cirrhosis. As evidence suggests against chest tube placement in HH, many clinicians are reluctant to place indwelling pleural catheters (IPCs) for non-malignant effusions like HH. We aim to study the efficacy and safety of IPCs as an alternative treatment option in our systematic review.A literature search was conducted using the electronic database engines MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Scopus and Cochrane Library (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews) from inception to April 2018 to identify published articles and reports addressing outcomes in patients treated for HH with IPCs. The risk of bias was rated for each study using the Cochrane criteria.The search strategy retrieved 370 papers, of which four case series were selected with a total of 111 patients. After the insertion of IPCs for HH, spontaneous pleurodesis was achieved in 16 (31.4%) out of 51 patients at a mean duration of 73-222 days. As far as secondary outcomes were concerned, the frequency of pneumothorax during or after the procedure was 0 (0%) out of 92 patients, pain at insertion site 12 (20%) out of 60 patients, catheter blockage two (2.9%) out of 68 patients, pleural fluid infection five (4.5%) out of 111 patients and catheter-site cellulitis one (3.1%) out of 32 patients. Re-accumulation of pleural fluid after catheter removal was mentioned in one study, wherein 12 (20%) out of 60 patients developed recurrence of pleural effusion.We conclude IPCs as an acceptable therapeutic option for the management of refractory pleural effusion in patients with HH. Although trans-jugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and liver transplantation are the gold standards for the management of pleural effusion in these patients, cost and availability are the major concerns with these treatment modalities. IPCs are a safe and efficacious alternative with a reasonable rate of spontaneous pleurodesis.
Baig et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC-BY 4.0., which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Corona virus has become a global health pandemic since its origin in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aims to assess gastrointestinal symptoms and liver enzymes trend in corona virus infection.
Pooled proportions were calculated using both fixed and random effects model. Weighted mean difference and 95% CI were calculated.
We included 15 relevant articles in the meta-analysis (n = 3762). The pooled proportion of patients with nausea/vomiting was 7.00% (95% CI = 6.00-8.00) while that of diarrhea was 6.00% (95% CI = 5.00-7.00). Weighted mean difference of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in non-severe COVID-19 patients was higher by 20.54 U/liter (95% CI = 19.95-21.13) and 21.38 U/liter (95% CI = 20.92-21.84) while that in severe patients was higher by 22.70 U/liter (95% CI = 19.09-26.45) and by 22.94 U/liter (95% CI = 20.46-25.42) respectively, as compared to general population. Pooled proportions showed ALT levels to be elevated in 16.00% (95% CI = 14.00-18.00) of patients with non-severe and 25.00% (95% CI = 20.00-31.00) of patients with severe COVID-19. Weighted mean difference of albumin and platelet count was found to be lower by 3.28 g/liter (95% CI = 3.05-3.50) and by 14.21 x 10
/liter (95% CI = 11.87-16.55) in non-severe patients and by 11.39 g/liter (95% CI = 10.16-12.63) and 40.70 x 10
/liter (95% CI = 33.62-47.77) in severe patients.
Our meta-analysis shows that patients with COVID-19 infection can present with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea in addition to elevated liver enzymes including AST, ALT and a decline in albumin and platelet count which is more marked in severe disease.
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