Background Environmental factors have an impact on inappropriate food choices and sedentary lifestyle, and both individually and in combination these factors favour improper gestational weight gain (GWG) and consequent maternal and neonatal health problems. The objective of this study was to analyze the environmental and individual factors associated with GWG. Methods Data were from “Born in Belo Horizonte: Survey on childbirth and birth”, a hospital-based retrospective cohort of 506 pregnant women with deliveries in public and private maternity hospitals in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews from November 2011 to March 2013. The outcome variable of this study was the GWG categorized based on the Institute of Medicine Guidelines. Explanatory environmental variables included the availability and access to food environment and places available for physical activity in the neighborhood. Explanatory individual variables included socioeconomic and demographic, obstetric and childbirth variables. Generalized estimating equations examined the association of environmental and individual factors with insufficient or excessive GWG. Results The final sample consisted of 506 mothers. There was 36.4% pregnant women showing excessive GWG and 22.7% showing GWG below the recommended interval. Regarding excessive GWG, there was a positive association with the number of mixed food purchasing establishments close to the place of residence, pre-pregnancy body mass index in the categories of overweight and obesity, arterial hypertension and the private sector as the predominant place for prenatal consultations. Conclusion GWG outside of the recommended interval was associated with individual and environmental factors, and most pregnant women had insufficient or excessive gestational weight gain. Such results can complement previously published evidence, important for creating more effective strategies for the prevention of excessive and inadequate GWG and the consequent problems related to it during pregnancy.
RESUMOObjetivo: avaliar a prevalência de aditivos em quatro categorias de alimentos comercializados em Lavras, MG. Materiais e Métodos: Os dados da presença de aditivos em biscoitos salgados e doces, sopas instantâneas e salgadinhos foram obtidos por meio de visitas nos principais supermercados da cidade, e foram submetidos a uma análise de frequência em cada uma das classes de alimentos. Resultados: Dentre os 217 alimentos pesquisados, os aditivos encontrados com maior risco de toxicidade foram respectivamente: corante caramelo e amarelo crepúsculo, glutamato monossódico e o antioxidante TBHQ. Discussão: Não foram encontrados na literatura problemas de toxicologia com o restante de aditivos estudados, sobretudo em relação aos estabilizantes e fermentos químicos. Conclusão: Conclui-se que a prevalência de aditivos comprovadamente nocivos à saúde humana foi baixa nos alimentos industrializados estudados. Estudos para determinar efetivamente a nocividade dos demais aditivos encontrados são necessários.Palavras-chave: Aditivos químicos, Alimentos processados, Toxicidade. ABSTRACTIntroduction: Intake of processed food for easy consumption by the population is increasing due to the convenience and pleasant taste offered, but the use of these products can cause health problems due to numerous chemical additives. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of additives in four categories of foods marketed in Lavras, MG. Materials and Methods: Data from the presence of additives in crackers and cookies, instant soups and snacks were obtained through visits in the major grocery stores in the city, and were subjected to a frequency analysis on each of the food classes. Results: Among the 217 surveyed food additives, those with increased risk of toxicity were respectively: caramel coloring and sunset yellow, monosodium glutamate and antioxidant TBHQ. Discussion: It was not found in the toxicology literature problems with the rest of the additives studied, especially with regard to stabilizing and chemical leavening agents. Conclusion: We concluded that the prevalence of proven harmful additives to human health was low in processed foods studied. Despite this, additional research to effectively determine the harmfulness of other additives are found necessary.Keywords: Chemical additives, Processed food, Toxicity.
Background Adolescence is a period of transition and vulnerabilities, in which mental illnesses can develop more easily. The objective of this work is to analyze the association of dietary patterns, breakfast consumption, and the practice of having meals accompanied by the family with the presence of Common Mental Disorders in Brazilian adolescents. Methods This is a cross-sectional study which analyzed data from 71,553 Brazilian adolescents aged 12–17 years, from the Study of Cardiovascular Risk in Adolescents (Portuguese acronym, “ERICA”). Principal Component Analysis was performed to identify dietary patterns, and Logistic Regression Models were performed to identify the associations between Common Mental Disorders, dietary patterns, and eating practices that are breakfast consumption and practice of having meals accompanied by family. Results Two patterns were found, a Healthy Dietary Pattern and an Unhealthy Dietary Pattern. Adolescents classified in the second (OR: 0.79; 95% CI 0.70—0.89) or third (OR: 0.86; 95% CI 0.77—0.96) tercile of the Healthy Dietary Pattern had a lower chance of having Common Mental Disorders. Eating breakfast sometimes (OR: 0.71; 95% CI 0.61—0.83) or almost every day/every day (OR: 0.54; 95% CI 0.47—0.62), and the practice of having the main meals with the family sometimes (OR: 0.69; 95% CI 0.57—0.84) or almost every day/every day (OR: 0.50; 95% CI 0.44–0.58), decreased the chance for Common Mental Disorders. Conclusion This study observed that healthy dietary patterns are associated with better mental health in adolescents, thus should be encouraged and promoted.
Background The prevalence of obesity in adolescents has increased significantly in recent years. The growth of obesity is motivated by the association with modifiable behaviors, however, this behavioral are commonly evaluated individually, not considering the possibility of these factors coexisting in the individual. The purpose of this essay was to identify the coexistence of obesogenic behaviors among Brazilian adolescents and to assess the factors associated with the presence of these behaviors. Methods This a cross-sectional, national, school-based study with data from the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), totaling a sample of 71,552 Brazilian adolescents. To identify the coexistence of obesogenic behaviors in adolescents, the Principal Component Analysis has been performed. To assess the association between factors that influence the coexistence of modifiable behaviors in the pattern of obesogenic behavior, logistic regression was used. The magnitude of the associations was estimated by the Odds Ratio (OR), with the respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results The component was characterized by a higher percentage of ultra-processed food intake, longer in front of screens, having a habit of snacking in front of the television, and not having the habit of eating breakfast. In the adjusted logistic model, it shows that female adolescents and who declare themselves black are more likely to belong to the third tertile of the pattern of obesogenic behavior. As for teenagers who sometimes or almost always or always have lunch or dinner with parents or guardians, who have longer hours of sleep and who live in economically disadvantaged regions have reduced chances of belonging to the third tertile of the pattern of obesogenic behavior. Conclusion The identification of obesogenic behavior patterns allows assertive interventions to eliminate or reduce these changeable behaviors, also aiming at the possibility of reducing obesity among adolescents.
Objetivo: caracterizar crianças e adolescentes vulneráveis socioeconomicamente. Materiais e Métodos: participaram da pesquisa 246 voluntários que responderam a um questionário semiestruturado sobre percepções do local de moradia e segurança pessoal. A cor da pele foi autodeclarada e a Insegurança Alimentar (IA) foi avaliada pela Escala Brasileira de Insegurança Alimentar (EBIA). O estado nutricional foi averiguado pela aferição do peso e altura e posterior cálculo do IMC. Os dados foram analisados pelo teste qui-quadrado através do software SPSS® e apresentados em intervalos de confiança para as proporções.Resultados: a cor de pele predominante foi a negra (43,9% [43,60% - 44,20%]). Não houveram diferenças no padrão de respostas referentes ao local de moradia entre os sujeitos das diferentes cores de pele. Mais de 50% dos voluntários relataram ter medo de pessoas estranhas, 69,9% [57% - 80%] se encontravam IA, 51,8% estavam em excesso de peso e apresentaram consumo médio de 3,57 porções de produtos ultraprocessados diariamente.Conclusão: os voluntários foram caracterizados predominantemente como negros e pardos. Embora, serem em sua maioria, eutróficos, expressiva parcela se encontrou em excesso de peso e, de tudo, os dados alertam que é uma população que se encontra em IA e com elevado consumo de produtos ultraprocessados.
BackgroundAdolescence is a period of transition and vulnerabilities, in which mental illnesses can develop more easily. The objective of this work is to verify the association between food consumption patterns and the presence of Common Mental Disorders in Brazilian adolescents. MethodsThis is a cross-sectional study which analyzed data from 71,553 Brazilian adolescents aged 12-17 years, from the ERICA Study. Principal Component Analysis was performed to identify Food Consumption Patterns, and Logistic Regression Models were performed to identify the associations between Common Mental Disorders, Food Consumption Patterns, and eating practices that are breakfast consumption and practice of having meals accompanied by family. ResultsTwo patterns were found, a Healthy Food Consumption Pattern and a Unhealthy Food Consumption Pattern. Adolescents classified in the second (OR: 0.77; 95% CI 0.68 - 0.88) or third (OR: 0.87; 95% CI 0.74 - 0.95) tercile of the Healthy Food Consumption Pattern had a lower chance of having Common Mental Disorders, while those who belonged to the third tercile of the Unhealthy Food Consumption Pattern (OR: 1.22; 95% CI 1.02 - 1.42), had an increased chance of having Common Mental Disorders. Eating breakfast sometimes (OR: 0.69; 95% CI 0.59 - 0.80) or almost every day/every day (OR: 0.52; 95% CI 0.46 - 0.59), and the practice of having the main meals with the family sometimes (OR: 0.64; 95% CI 0.54 - 0.75) or almost every day/every day (OR: 0.48; 95% CI 0.40-0.55), decreased the chance for Common Mental Disorders.ConclusionStrategies to promote the mental health of adolescents as the adoption of healthy eating practices must be strengthened and promoted.
Purpose To evaluate the impact of food and nutrition education interventions based on the intuitive method (IM) proposed by Johaan Henrich Pestalozzi (1746–1827) at different time periods on the food practices of children and adolescents. Design This was a prospective comparative intervention program assessed by a pre–post survey at shorter term (3 months) and longer term (6 months). Setting Two institutions that provide extracurricular social support for children and adolescents with social and economic vulnerabilities in the city of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The shorter-term intervention was conducted in Institution A and the longer term one conducted in Institution B. Subjects The sample consisted of 245 students aged between 5 and 14 years who attended the institutions. For each institution, they were divided into two groups (control and IM). Intervention We compared the effectiveness of the interventions performed by the IM or by expository actions (control) in both institutions. Interventions were focused on the guidelines of the Food Guide for the Brazilian Population and dealt with food choices, meal preparation, commensality, and obstacles to healthy eating. Measures The assessed outcomes were food consumption according to NOVA food classification, cooking self-efficacy, and knowledge about food and nutrition. Analysis Paired t-tests were used to compare food consumption before and after interventions. Adjusted logistic regression models were used to analyze the outcomes on food and nutrition knowledge and cooking self-efficacy. Results Subjects receiving IM interventions decreased mean intake of ultra-processed food (3.56 to 1.50 portions; P< .001) and had greater odds of increasing self-efficacy with cooking (OR = 2,33–4,17). Both methods were effective regarding teaching about food and nutrition. Intervention period did not homogeneously impact these outcomes. Conclusions The use of food and nutrition education interventions presented positive outcomes on the food practices of the participants. The IM is an alternative method to educate children and adolescents about healthy eating practices.
A Educação Alimentar e Nutricional (EAN) é uma área do conhecimento considerada essencial para a promoção da saúde e prevenção de doenças. Contudo, existem poucos estudos desenvolvidos com idosos, população suscetível ao surgimento de enfermidades. O objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver ações de EAN para a promoção da saúde por meio da melhoria das escolhas alimentares de idosas residentes em uma Instituição de Longa Permanência situada em Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Para tanto, foram conduzidas ações de EAN durante quatro meses, com 19 idosas, usando fundamentações metodológicas pautadas nos estudos de Paulo Freire e Johaan Henrich Pestalozzi, que advém para interpor caráter inovador na condução da EAN em detrimento das práticas tradicionais, como a educação bancária. Foram realizadas cinco ações com o intuito de construir o conhecimento acerca de alimentação e nutrição, estimulando a criticidade, autonomia e o empoderamento das idosas em suas escolhas alimentares. As intervenções realizadas apresentaram êxito quanto à melhoria das escolhas alimentares, demonstrando respostas positivas no uso de metodologias problematizadoras, desenvolvendo a autonomia quanto às escolhas alimentares saudáveis das idosas.
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