Bacterial biofilm has been reported to be associated with more than 80% of bacterial infections. Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol compound, has anti-quorum sensing activity apart from having antimicrobial action. However, its use is limited by its poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation. In this study, we attempted to prepare quantum dots of the drug curcumin in order to achieve enhanced solubility and stability and investigated for its antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity. We utilized a newer two-step bottom up wet milling approach to prepare Curcumin Quantum Dots (CurQDs) using acetone as a primary solvent. Minimum inhibitory concentration against select Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was performed. The antibiofilm assay was performed at first using 96-well tissue culture plate and subsequently validated by Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Further, biofilm matrix protein was isolated using formaldehyde sludge and TCA/Acetone precipitation method. Protein extracted was incubated with varying concentration of CurQDs for 4 h and was subjected to SDS–PAGE. Molecular docking study was performed to observe interaction between curcumin and phenol soluble modulins as well as curli proteins. The biophysical evidences obtained from TEM, SEM, UV-VIS, fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, and zeta potential analysis confirmed the formation of curcumin quantum dots with increased stability and solubility. The MICs of curcumin quantum dots, as observed against both select gram positive and negative bacterial isolates, was observed to be significantly lower than native curcumin particles. On TCP assay, Curcumin observed to be having antibiofilm as well as biofilm degrading activity. Results of SDS–PAGE and molecular docking have shown interaction between biofilm matrix proteins and curcumin. The results indicate that aqueous solubility and stability of Curcumin can be achieved by preparing its quantum dots. The study also demonstrates that by sizing down the particle size has not only enhanced its antimicrobial properties but it has also shown its antibiofilm activities. Further, study is needed to elucidate the exact nature of interaction between curcumin and biofilm matrix proteins.
PurposeThe paper attempts to investigate the term “environmental consciousness” and identify the underlying components of environmental consciousness and its antecedents. Also, to propose the framework explaining the linkage between environmental consciousness, its antecedents, components, and behavioral outcome, and also the variables, if any, that may intervene between environmental consciousness and environmentally conscious consumer behavior.Design/methodology/approachThe paper reviews extant literature to bring conceptual clarity to the term environmental consciousness and its linkages with the related variables.FindingsEnvironmental consciousness – a mental state variable – is found distinct from its antecedents and associated behaviors. It is a multi‐dimensional construct varying from low general level to high product‐specific level.Research limitations/implicationsThis paper provides understanding for the term environmental consciousness and its relation with other variables and thus leaves the wide scope for research in the future.Practical implicationsThe extent to which green marketing efforts can gainfully be taken to the market and given a required scale depends upon environmental consciousness of the consumers. According to levels of environmental consciousness, green consumer segments are obtained and “greener” consumer segments can be targeted to induce pro‐environmental purchase behavior.Social implicationsThe proposed model in the study would allow the green marketers to support the whole idea of environment protection through appropriate marketing strategies.Originality/valueBased on extant review of literature, the paper proposes the term environmental consciousness as a mental state variable, which is distinct from its antecedents and behavioural outcomes.
In conclusion, optimized 1.5% w/v chitosan gel was thermoresponsive, mucoadhesive, syringeable, and released drugs in slow and controlled manner with effectiveness against broad range of microbes.
Abstract. Metronidazole (MZ) and levofloxacin (LF) are widely employed for treatment of periodontitis, but high oral dose and resistance development after long-term oral administration limit their use. The aim of this study was to alleviate shortcomings in the treatment of periodontitis by fabrication of intrapocket, biodegradable films of chitosan (CS) loaded with MZ and LF meant for inserting into periodontal pockets to treat infections. The films were developed by solvent casting technique using propylene glycol as plasticizer and glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Their physical characteristics, such as drug content, surface pH, swelling index, and folding endurance, exhibited results within limit. Further, FTIR and DSC studies revealed stability of films and compatibility between drugs and excipients. SEM images of films showed the presence of free drug particles on the surface causing burst effect. In vitro release in McIlvaine buffer pH 6.6 was of sustained nature assisted by the burst effect. CS and crosslinking agent concentrations negatively affected drug release and positively affected T 90 (time for releasing 90% of the drug) due to altered matrix density. In contrast, the plasticizer concentration increases membrane permeability and hence increased drug release, lowering T 90 . Crosslinked films demonstrated sustained release up to 7 days. The antibacterial efficacy of films was tested on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, indicating good antibacterial activity. Clinical trials on patients proved the therapeutic efficacy of the films by a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in the clinical markers of periodontitis, i.e. gingival index, plaque index and pocket depth. Conclusively, the films of MZ and LF were successful tools for the management of periodontitis.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) binds to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor and invade the human cells to cause COVID-19-related pneumonia. Despite an emphasis on respiratory complications, the evidence of neurological manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection is rapidly growing, which is substantially contributing to morbidity and mortality. The neurological disorders associated with COVID-19 may have several pathophysiological underpinnings, which are yet to be explored. Hypothetically, SARS-CoV-2 may affect the central nervous system (CNS) either by direct mechanisms like neuronal retrograde dissemination and hematogenous dissemination, or via indirect pathways. CNS complications associated with COVID-19 include encephalitis, acute necrotizing encephalopathy, diffuse leukoencephalopathy, stroke (both ischemic and hemorrhagic), venous sinus thrombosis, meningitis, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. These may result from different mechanisms, including direct virus infection of the CNS, virus-induced hyper-inflammatory states, and post-infection immune responses. On the other hand, the Guillain-Barre syndrome, hyposmia, hypogeusia, and myopathy are the outcomes of peripheral nervous system injury. Although the therapeutic potential of certain repurposed drugs has led to their off-label use against COVID-19, such as anti-retroviral drugs (remdesivir, favipiravir, and lopinavir-ritonavir combination), biologics (tocilizumab), antibiotics (azithromycin), antiparasitics (chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine), and corticosteroids (dexamethasone), unfortunately, the associated clinical neuropsychiatric adverse events remains a critical issue. Therefore, COVID-19 represents a major threat to the field of neuropsychiatry, as both the virus and the potential therapies may induce neurologic as well as psychiatric disorders. Notably, potential COVID-19 medications may also interact with the medications of pre-existing neuropsychiatric diseases, thereby further complicating the condition. From this perspective, this review will discuss the possible neurological manifestations and sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection with emphasis on the probable underlying neurotropic mechanisms. Additionally, we will highlight the concurrence of COVID-19 treatment-associated neuropsychiatric events and possible clinically relevant drug interactions, to provide a useful framework and help researchers, especially the neurologists in understanding the neurologic facets of the ongoing pandemic to control the morbidity and mortality.
Background:The periodontal diseases are the most prevalent oral diseases worldwide especially in developing countries like India. The objective of this cross-sectional survey was to determine the prevalence of periodontal diseases and treatment needs (TNs) in a hospital-based population.Materials and Methods:Totally, 500 men and women (15-74 years) were recruited and periodontal status of each study subject and sextant was evaluated on the basis of community periodontal index of TNs, and thereafter TN for each subject and sextant was categorized on the basis of the highest code recorded during the examination.Results:A total of 500 subjects (59% males and 41% females) was divided into seven age groups, that is, 15-19, 20-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years and sextants were included from the 486 subjects. Healthy periodontium, bleeding on probing, calculus, shallow pockets, and deep pockets were found in 3.9%, 6.58%, 50.61%, 20.98%, and 17.90% subjects, respectively. Males were more affected with shallow and deep pockets as compared to females. Periodontal diseases in the early stages were more prevalent in the younger age groups, whereas advanced stages were more prevalent in older age groups. 17.90% subjects and 11.48% sextants need complex treatment. About 77.98% subjects and 73.15% sextants require either oral hygiene instructions or oral hygiene instructions and oral prophylaxis. Only 3.9% subjects and 15.36% sextants were healthy and needed no treatment.Conclusions:Periodontal diseases were found to be 96.30% in the study population and the results indicate that majority of the population need primary and secondary level of preventive program to reduce the chances of initiation or progression of periodontal diseases thereby improving their systemic health overall.
INTRODUCTIONAccording to millennium development goals (MDG) in 2015, the goal number five was to improve the maternal health is falling way below our target. Our aim in reducing maternal mortality by 75% has not been met with MDG.1 Pregnant women's health status is not reflected by mortality indicators alone hence the concept of severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) is an apt for the present health providing system. 2,3 SAMM has been studied extensively in the recent past as a complement for maternal mortality and also to evaluate the quality of obstetric care in that particular institution. This concept is superior over maternal death in drawing attention to surviving women's reproductive health and lives and is equally applicable in developing countries as well as developed countries. In many developed countries, maternal mortality has fallen to single digits whereas near miss cases are more and hence useful in evaluation of the present system. Moreover, they have the advantage of not being as rare as maternal deaths for providing adequate information, as well as still being rare enough not to overload clinicians and data collection personnel within the facility. 4 Till recently there were no criteria set for identification of these cases for routine implementation, and wider application of this concept was limited.5 But in ABSTRACTBackground: According to millennium development goals (MDG) in 2015, the goal number five was to improve the maternal health is falling way below our target. Our aim in reducing maternal mortality by 75% has not been met with MDG. Pregnant women's health status is not reflected by mortality indicators alone hence the concept of severe acute maternal morbidity (SAMM) is an apt for the present health providing system. The main objectives of the study were to; (1) To determine the frequency of maternal near miss, maternal near miss incidence ratio (MNMR), maternal near miss to mortality ratio and mortality index; (2) To compare the nature of near miss events with maternal mortality; (3) To observe the trend of near miss events. Methods: It was a retrospective study design conducted at Late B.R.K.M Government medical college, Jagdalpur, Chhattisgarh, India during September 2013 to August 2014. The study population includes near miss cases and maternal deaths. Cases were defined based on WHO criteria 2009. Results: Out of 3539 deliveries, 39 wear near miss cases during the study period. The maternal near miss incidence ratio was 11.9/1000 live births, maternal near miss to mortality ratio was 2.05:1, and mortality index was 32.7%. Hemorrhage was the leading cause (43.5%), followed by severe anemia (15.38%), rupture uterus (15.38%), preeclampsia/eclampsia (12.82%), sepsis (5.12%), complicated malaria (5.12%) and hepatitis (2.56%). Maternal mortality ratio (MMR) was 580/100000 live births. Conclusions: Hemorrhage was the leading cause of near miss events. As near miss analysis indicates the quality of health care, it is worth presenting in national indices.
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