In this paper, some theoretical mathematical aspects of the known predator-prey problem are considered by relaxing the assumptions that interaction of a predation leads to little or no effect on growth of the prey population and the prey growth rate parameter is a positive valued function of time. The predator growth model is derived considering that the prey follows a known growth models viz., Logistic and Von Bertalanffy. The result shows that the predator's population growth models look to be new functions. For either models, the predator population size either converges to a finite positive limit or to 0 or diverges to +∞. It is shown algebraically and illustrated pictorially that there is a condition at which the predator-prey population models both converge to the same finite limit. Derivations and simulation studies are provided in the paper. Analysis of equilibrium points and stability is also included.
This paper investigates the rich dynamics in a tritrophic food chain mathematical model, consisting of three species: prey, intermediate predators, and top predators. It is assumed that alternative food are supplied to intermediate predators in addition to feeding on prey. We consider a general Holling type response function and analyze the model. The existence and stability of six possible equilibrium points are established. These equilibrium points describe the various dynamics that could take place in the food chain. Hopf bifurcation, limit cycle, doubling periods, chaotic attractors, boundary crisis are observed in the numerical computations. Our results reveal the rich and complex dynamics of the interactions in the food chain.
Recommendations for Resource ManagersOur investigation brings the followings to the attention of management:• Coexistence among predators and prey in the same environment is possible provided a good management of some factors (such as contacts between species, additional food supply, growth rate of species, etc).• The dynamics is complex and highly sensitive to the above factors. Strange or unpredictable behaviors could be observed.• The rate at which species are killed by a single predator (i.e., the functional responses) significantly affects the population sizes of all the species and the overall dynamics in the food chain.
K E Y W O R D Scoexistence, food chain model, holling type functions, limit cycle, tritrophic
In this paper, we have discussed harvesting of prey and intermediate predator species. Both are subjected to Holling type I–V functional response. Conditions for local and global stability of the nonnegative equilibria are verified. The permanent coexistence criterion of the model system and existence of optimal equilibrium solution of the control problem are demonstrated. Maximum sustainable yield and maximal net present revenue are determined. To confirm analytical results, numerical solution has been carried out using the Matlab™ ODE solver ODE45 and the simulations show the model system reveals complex behavior (such as oscillations), which reflects the real situation.
Recommendations for Resource Managers
From our investigation of this study, we recommend to the management the following points.
Coexistence of the three species with harvesting, or persistence of the model system is possible provided that good management(treatment) of some factors (such as harvesting rate, growth rate of species, etc.) are performed.
The dynamics reveals complex behavior (such as oscillations), which reflects the real situation and it is sensitive to the above factors, especially the growth rate of the intermediate predator.
The policy makers should recommend the optimal effort
* to be applied and the optimal stock
) to harvest. This indicates that maximum profit will attain while securing sustainability of the three species in the ecosystem.
Abstract:In this paper we have presented a pair of coupled differential equations to represent a prey -predator system. It is assumed that the growth of the prey population follows critical depensation function and that of the predator population is negative in absence of the prey population. The critical depensation function is special since the growth rate is negative initially but positive later on. This function is stable both at the origin and at the carrying capacity while unstable at the critical mass quantity. The maximum and minimum rates of the critical depensation model are verified. It can be interpreted here that the prey represent fish and the predator represent a kind of birds that mostly feeding on fish to live. We showed the solution of the model is positive and bounded. The mathematical model of the system consisting of 7 parameters is constructed and shown that the non -dimensionalization decreases the number of model parameters to 4. The deterministic behavior of the model around feasible equilibrium points and criteria of the interior positive equilibrium points and their stability are explained. The trivial equilibrium point is always stable while the two axial equilibrium points and the lone interior equilibrium point are either stable or unstable depending on the conditions imposed on the parameters. The criterion for the existence of the limit cycle and the region of existence of interior equilibrium point are identified. Global stability of interior equilibrium points is also studied. For the interior equilibrium point of the model (i) the region of existence is identified (ii) Dulac's criteria is applied to find the limit cycle and (iii) Lyaponov function is used to analyze the global stability. Simulation study of the model is conducted in support of the analytical analysis. To solidify the analytical results numerical simulations are provided for hypothetical set of parametric values.
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