Purpose-The purpose of this paper is to investigate oil-gas slug formation in horizontal straight pipe and its associated pressure gradient, slug liquid holdup and slug frequency. Design/methodology/approach-The abrupt change in gas/liquid velocities, which causes transition of flow patterns, was analyzed using incompressible volume of fluid method to capture the dynamic gasliquid interface. The validity of present model and its methodology was validated using Baker's flow regime chart for 3.15 inches diameter horizontal pipe and with existing experimental data to ensure its correctness. Findings-The present paper proposes simplified correlations for liquid holdup and slug frequency by comparison with numerous existing models. The paper also identified correlations that can be used in operational oil and gas industry and several outlier models that may not be applicable. Research limitations/implications-The correlation may be limited to the range of material properties used in this paper. Practical implications-Numerically derived liquid holdup and holdup frequency agreed reasonably with the experimentally derived correlations. Social implications-The models could be used to design pipeline and piping systems for oil and gas production. Originality/value-The paper simulated all the seven flow regimes with superior results compared to existing methodology. New correlations derived numerically are compared to published experimental correlations to understand the difference between models.
Bileaflet mechanical heart valves (BMHVs) are widely used to replace diseased heart valves. However, patients may suffer from implant complications, such as platelet aggregation and damage to blood cells, which could lead to BMHV failure. These complications are related to the blood flow patterns in the BMHV. A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model was developed to investigate blood hydrodynamics and shear stresses at different cardiac cycles. A user-defined function (UDF) code was developed to model the valve leaflet motion. This UDF updates the tetrahedral mesh according to the location of the valve leaflet, which enables modeling of complicated moving geometries and achieves solution convergence with ease without the need to adjust the relaxation factor values. The agreement between the experimental and numerical results indicates that the developed model could be used with confidence to simulate BMHV motion and blood flow. Furthermore, valve leaflet and valve pivot were found to be continuously exposed to shear stresses higher than 52.3 Pa which according to previous research findings may cause damage to blood platelets.
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