Currently, medications used to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are glucocorticoids (GCs) and nonsteroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), predominantly used for controlling the pain and inflammation, disease‐modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), administered as first‐line medication for newly diagnosed RA cases, and biological therapies, used to target and inhibit specific molecules of the immune and inflammatory responses. NSAIDs and other GCs are effective in alleviating the pain, inflammation, and stiffness due to RA. DMARDs that are used for RA therapy are hydroxychloroquine, methotrexate, leflunomide, and sulfasalazine. The biological therapies, on the contrary, are chimeric anti‐CD20 monoclonal antibody, rituximab, inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α) like etanercept, infliximab, and adalimumab, a recombinant inhibitor of interleukin‐1 (IL‐1), anakinra, and costimulation blocker, abatacept. Moreover, newly under evaluation biological therapies include new TNF‐α inhibitors, JAK inhibitors, anti‐interleukin‐6‐receptor monoclonal antibodies (mABs), and antibodies against vital molecules involved in the survival and development of functional B cells. The new strategies to treat RA has improved the course of the disease and most of the patients are successful in remission of the clinical manifestations if the diagnosis of the disease occur early. The probability of remission increase if the diagnosis happens rapidly and treat‐to‐target approach are implemented. In this review article, we have attempted to go through the treatment strategies for RA therapy both the routine ones and those which have been developed over the past few years and currently under investigation.
Computer systems are becoming increasingly complex parallel, distributed, and communicating devices. Unfortunately, human beings are notoriously weak in thinking of and reasoning about concurrency scenarios . Therefore, mathematical modeling and analysis techniques are required to comprehend and design them. This situation is similar to classical engineering disciplines, where mathematical comprehension is already for a long time the essential tool to engineer artifacts. In "Modeling and Analysis of Communicating Systems" , we put forward a method for rigorous modeling and mathematical analysis of communicating and concurrent systems. The primary focus of the book is to present formalisms, methods and tools that are helpful in understanding and designing the complex concurrent systems that surround us. This book takes process algebras and in particular the notion of an atomic action as a starting point. This basic formalism has been enriched with various datatypes, including functions, sets, lists, reals, and quantifiers. In order to formulate requirements, the modal µ-calculus is used, and is extended with data and time, which as such is second to none when it comes to expressiveness. Most of the theory in the book is presented as classical theory that can be studied, understood and used by humans. But if it comes to the study and analysis of actual behavior, this is generally so complex, that manually analyzing them is not very effective. Therefore, the book is supported by an extensive and powerful toolset, available from http://www.mcrl2.org. On the toolset webpage, it can be seen that the method has been used to under
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