Nanotechnology is an emerging field of science that is widely used in medical sciences. However, it has limited uses in monogastric farm animal as well as fish and poultry nutrition. There are some works that have been done on curcumin and curcumin nanoparticles as pharmaceutics in animal nutrition. However, studies have shown that ingestion of curcumin or curcumin nanoparticles does not benefit the animal health much due to their lower bioavailability, which may result because of low absorption, quick metabolism and speedy elimination of curcumin from the animal body. For these reasons, advanced formulations of curcumin are needed. Curcumin nanospheres is a newly evolved field of nanobiotechnology which may have beneficial effects in terms of growth increment, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects on animal and fish health by means of nanosphere forms that are biodegradable and biocompatible. Thus, this review aims to highlight the potential application of curcumin, curcumin nanoparticles and curcumin nanospheres in the field of monogastric farm animal, poultry and fish nutrition. We do believe that the review provides the perceptual vision for the future development of curcumin, curcumin nanoparticles and curcumin nanospheres and their applications in monogastric farm animal, poultry and fish nutrition.
Three feeding trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding rate and water temperature on growth and body composition of juvenile Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli rearing at 3 different water temperatures. A total of 270 fish (each experiment) individual body weight (BW) averaging 16±0.3 g (mean±SD) were fed a commercial diet for 4 wk at 16°C, 20°C, and 24°C. At each temperature, triplicate tanks were assigned to one of 6 feeding rates: 1.5%, 2.5%, 2.8%, 3.1%, 3.4%, and satiation (3.7% BW/d) at 16°C, 1.9%, 2.9%, 3.2%, 3.5%, 3.8% and satiation (4.1% BW/d) at 20°C and 1.7%, 2.7%, 3.0%, 3.3%, 3.6%, and satiation (3.9% BW/d) at 24°C water temperature. Weight gains of fish in satiation and 3.4% groups at 16°C, in satiation and 3.8% groups at 20°C and in satiation and 3.6% groups at 24°C were significantly higher than those of fish in the other treatments (p<0.05). A broken line regression analysis of weight gain indicated that optimum feeding rates of juvenile Korean rockfish were 3.41% at 16°C, 3.75% at 20°C and 3.34% at 24°C water temperature. Results of the present study indicate that the optimum feeding rate could be >3.1% but <3.41% at 16°C, >3.5% but <3.75% at 20°C and >3.0% but <3.34% at 24°C. As we expected results suggest that fish performed better at 20°C than 16°C or 24°C water temperature and the optimum feeding rate could be 3.1% BW/d to 3.7% BW/d in 16 g of juvenile Korean rockfish.
A 120-day research was conducted to evaluate the effects of different stocking densities on growth, body composition, survival, yield and economic returns of monosex male Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in net cages in Kaptai Lake of Bangladesh. Juvenile monosex tilapia with an average weight of 15.20 ± 0.15 g (mean ± SD) were randomly stocked in 12 floating net cages (3 m × 3 m × 2 m) at densities of 50 fish/m 3 (T 50), 75 fish/m 3 (T 75), 100 fish/m 3 (T 100) and 125 fish/m 3 (T 125) in triplicate groups. Fish were fed with a commercial pelleted floating feed (29% protein) at 3-5% of body weight, twice daily in all the treatments. The physico-chemical parameters of lake water were within suitable ranges for fish cultured in cages. After 120 days of trial, growth in terms of body final length, final weight, weight gain, percent weight gain, daily weight gain and specific growth rate of fish from T 50 were significantly higher than those of fish from T 75 , T 100 and T 125. Feed conversion ratio was significantly lower in T 50 followed by T 75 , T 100 and T 125 consecutively. Survival rate was not significantly different in T 50 , T 75 and T 100 while lowest survival was found in T 125. Significantly lower amount of body lipid and carbohydrate contents were found in T 125 than those of fish from T 50 , T 75 and T 100. Gross and net production levels from T 100 were significantly higher than those from T 50 , T 75 and T 125. However, the benefit cost ratio from T 50 was better than those from T 75 , T 100 and T 125. The results demonstrated that on the basis of growth and economic return 50 fish/m 3 was the best stocking density for monosex tilapia culture in cages which might be technically feasible and economically viable.
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary probiotics on growth, nonspecific immune responses and disease resistance in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish averaging 5.8 AE 0.8 g (mean AE SD) were fed one of the five experimental diets; one control (Cont), and four other diets were prepared by supplementing single probiotics 1 (Bacillus subtilis; SP 1 , 0.5%), single probiotics 2 (Bacillus licheniformis; SP 2 , 0.5%), multi-probiotics (B. subtilis + B. licheniformis; MP, 0.5%) and oxytetracycline (OTC) at 5 g OTC kg À1 diet. After 8 weeks of the feeding trial, weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed SP 1 , SP 2 and OTC diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed Cont diet (P < 0.05). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activities of fish fed SP 1 , SP 2 and MP diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed Cont diet (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in SOD and lysozyme activities among fish fed SP 1 , SP 2 , MP and OTC diets. In challenge test with Aeromonas salmonicida for 15 days, fish fed SP 1 , SP 2 and MP diets showed significantly higher cumulative survival rate than those of fish fed Cont diet (P < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences in cumulative survival rate among fish fed SP 1 , SP 2 , MP and OTC diets. Although there was a little advantage in fish fed MP diet in terms of non-specific immune responses, single or multi-probiotics are equally effective statistically. These results indicate that single or multi-probiotics had equal beneficial effects as an antibiotic replacer on growth performance, non-specific immune responses and disease resistance in juvenile rainbow trout.
We evaluated four fermented protein concentrates (FPCs) as a fish meal replacer in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Ten diets were formulated to contain low‐temperature fish meal (LT‐FM), Vietnam fish meal (VT‐FM) and four types of FPCs as fish meal replacers (FPC‐A, B, C & D) at 30% and 50% FM replacement levels. FPC‐A was a mixture of solid‐state fermented soybean meal (SBM) and corn gluten meal (CGM) with Bacillus subtilis; FPC‐B was pretreated acid‐hydrolysed FPC‐A; FPC‐C and FPC‐D were FPC‐A + 2% shrimp soluble extract (SSE) and FPC‐B + 2% SSE, respectively. Triplicate groups of fish (average 15.4 g) were fed one of the experimental diets for 8 weeks. At the end of the feeding trial, fish fed the LT‐FM, FPC‐B, FPC‐C and FPC‐D diets showed significantly higher growth performance at 30% FM replacement than those of fish fed the FPC diets at 50% FM replacement. Fish fed 30FPC‐B, 30FPC‐C and 30FPC‐D diets showed higher weight gain (WG) than fish fed 30FPC‐A diet. Haematological parameters showed no clear trends among the experimental groups. Superoxide dismutase, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were found to be higher in fish fed the LT‐FM, FPC‐A, FPC‐B, FPC‐C and FPC‐D diets at 30% FM replacement than in fish fed the FPC diets at 50% FM replacement. Antinutritional factors such as α‐ and β‐conglycinin, glycinin, trypsin inhibitors or zein were absent in FPC compared with SBM and CGM. Intestinal villi length and muscular thickness were significantly reduced in fish fed the VT‐FM and FPC diets at 50% FM replacement compared to fish fed the LT‐FM and FPC diets at 30% FM replacement. The results show that FPC‐B, FPC‐C, FPC‐D could replace up to 30% of LT‐FM in juvenile rainbow trout.
A 12‐wk feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary fishmeal analogue (FMA) adding 2% shrimp soluble extract (SSE) on growing rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish averaging 146 ± 3.8 g (mean ± SD) were randomly distributed into 500‐L aquaria as groups of 20 fish per tank. Fish were fed the experimental diets in triplicate groups to apparent satiation twice a day on a dry matter basis. Each group was fed one of the four experimental diets: control (FM100% + FMA0%), FMA0 (FM100% + FMA0% + SSE2%), FMA12 (FM88% + FMA12% + SSE2%), and FMA24 (FM76% + FMA24% + SSE2%). After the feeding trial, weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed the FMA0 and FMA12 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed the FMA24 diet (P < 0.05). Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio values of fish fed the control, FMA0, and FMA12 diets were significantly higher than those of fish fed the FMA24 diet (P < 0.05). The values of superoxide dismutase activity showed significantly higher amounts for the FMA0, FMA12, and FMA24 groups than the control group (P < 0.05). Lysozyme activity in the FMA12 group was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). Therefore, according to our results, FMA with additive SSE can be used up to 12% as a substitute of fishmeal for growing rainbow trout.
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