Klotho has profound effects on phosphate metabolism, but the mechanisms of how Klotho affects phosphate homeostasis is unknown. We detected Klotho in the proximal tubule cell, brush border, and urinary lumen, where phosphate homeostasis resides. Increasing Klotho in the kidney and urine chronically by transgenic overexpression or acutely by intravenous infusion caused hypophosphatemia, phosphaturia from decreased proximal phosphate reabsorption, and decreased activity and protein of the principal renal phosphate transporter NaPi-2a. The phosphaturic effect was present in FGF23-null mice, indicating a direct action distinct from Klotho's known role as a coreceptor for FGF23. Direct inhibition of NaPi-2a by Klotho was confirmed in cultured cells and in cell-free membrane vesicles characterized by acute inhibition of transport activity followed by decreased cell surface protein. Transport inhibition can be mimicked by recombinant beta-glucuronidase and is associated with proteolytic degradation and reduced surface NaPi-2a. The inhibitory effect of Klotho on NaPi-2a was blocked by beta-glucuronidase inhibitor but not by protease inhibitor. Klotho is a novel phosphaturic substance that acts as an enzyme in the proximal tubule urinary lumen by modifying glycans, which cause decreased transporter activity, followed by proteolytic degradation and possibly internalization of NaPi-2a from the apical membrane.
The Internet-of-Things (IoT) envisages a future in which digital and physical things or objects (e.g., smartphones, TVs, cars) can be connected by means of suitable information and communication technologies, to enable a range of applications and services. The IoT's characteristics, including an ultra largescale network of things, device and network level heterogeneity, and the large number of events generated spontaneously by these things, will make development of the diverse applications and services a very challenging task. In general, middleware can ease the development process by integrating heterogeneous computing and communications devices, and supporting interoperability within the diverse applications and services. Recently, there have been a number of proposals for IoT middleware. These proposals mostly addressed Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), a key component of IoT, but do not consider Radio-Frequency IDentification (RFID), Machine to Machine (M2M) communications, and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA), other three core elements in the IoT vision. Taking a holistic view, in this article, we outline a set of requirements for IoT middleware, and present a comprehensive review of the existing middleware solutions against those requirements. In addition, open research issues, challenges and future research directions are highlighted.
Changes in the expression of klotho, a β-glucuronidase, contribute to the development of features that resemble those of premature aging, as well as chronic renal failure. Klotho knockout mice have increased expression of the sodium/phosphate cotransporter (NaPi2a) and 1α-hydroxylase in their kidneys, along with increased serum levels of phosphate and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. These changes are associated with widespread soft-tissue calcifications, generalized tissue atrophy, and a shorter lifespan in the knockout mice. To determine the role of the increased vitamin D activities in klotho knockout animals, we generated klotho and 1α-hydroxylase double-knockout mice. These double mutants regained body weight and developed hypophosphatemia with a complete elimination of the soft-tissue and vascular calcifications that were routinely found in klotho knockout mice. The markedly increased serum fibroblast growth factor 23 and the abnormally low serum parathyroid hormone levels, typical of klotho knockout mice, were significantly reversed in the double-knockout animals. These in vivo studies suggest that vitamin D has a pathologic role in regulating abnormal mineral ion metabolism and soft-tissue anomalies of klotho-deficient mice.
Phosphorus is an essential nutrient required for critical biological reactions that maintain the normal homoeostatic control of the cell. This element is an important component of different cellular structures, including nucleic acids and cell membranes. Adequate phosphorus balance is vital for maintaining basic cellular functions, ranging from energy metabolism to cell signalling. In addition, many intracellular pathways utilize phosphate ions for important cellular reactions; therefore, homoeostatic control of phosphate is one of the most delicate biological regulations. Impaired phosphorus balance can affect the functionality of almost every human system, including musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems, ultimately leading to an increase in morbidity and mortality of the affected patients. Human and experimental studies have found that delicate balance among circulating factors, like vitamin D, PTH (parathyroid hormone) and FGF23 (fibroblast growth factor 23), are essential for regulation of physiological phosphate balance. Dysregulation of these factors, either alone or in combination, can induce phosphorus imbalance. Recent studies have shown that suppression of the FGF23–klotho system can lead to hyperphosphataemia with extensive tissue damage caused by phosphate toxicity. The cause and consequences of phosphate toxicity will be briefly summarized in the present review.
Sensing of the application environment is the main purpose of a wireless sensor network. Most existing energy management strategies and compression techniques assume that the sensing operation consumes significantly less energy than radio transmission and reception. This assumption does not hold in a number of practical applications. Sensing energy consumption in these applications may be comparable to, or even greater than, that of the radio. In this work, we support this claim by a quantitative analysis of the main operational energy costs of popular sensors, radios and sensor motes. In light of the importance of sensing level energy costs, especially for power hungry sensors, we consider compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing as potential approaches to provide energy efficient sensing in wireless sensor networks. Numerical experiments investigating the effectiveness of compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing using real datasets show their potential for efficient utilization of sensing and overall energy costs in wireless sensor networks. It is shown that, for some applications, compressed sensing and distributed compressed sensing can provide greater energy efficiency than transform coding and model-based adaptive sensing in wireless sensor networks.
Hyp mice possess a mutation that inactivates the phosphate-regulating gene, which is homologous to the endopeptidases of the X-chromosome (PHEX). The mutation is associated with severe hypophosphatemia due to excessive urinary phosphate wasting. Such urinary phosphate wasting in Hyp mice is associated with an increased serum accumulation of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) 23. We wanted to determine the biological significance of increased serum FGF23 levels and concomitant hypophosphatemia in Hyp mice and to evaluate whether FGF23 activity could be modified by manipulating klotho (a cofactor of FGF23 signaling). We generated Hyp and klotho double-mutant mice (Hyp/klotho(-/-)). Severe hypophosphatemia of Hyp mice was reversed to hyperphosphatemia in Hyp/klotho(-/-) double mutants, despite the fact that the double mutants showed significantly increased serum levels of FGF23. Hyperphosphatemia in Hyp/klotho(-/-) mice was associated with increased renal expression of sodium/phosphate cotransporter 2a (NaPi2a) protein. Exogenous injection of bioactive parathyroid hormone 1-34 down-regulated renal expression of NaPi2a and consequently reduced serum levels of phosphate in Hyp/klotho(-/-) mice. Moreover, in contrast to the Hyp mice, the Hyp/klotho(-/-) mice showed significantly higher serum levels of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and developed extensive calcification in soft tissues and vascular walls. Furthermore, compared with the Hyp mice, Hyp/klotho(-/-) mice were smaller in size, showed features of generalized tissue atrophy, and generally died by 15-20 wk of age. Our in vivo studies provide genetic evidence for a pathological role of increased FGF23 activities in regulating abnormal phosphate homeostasis in Hyp mice. Moreover, these results suggest that even when serum levels of FGF23 are significantly high, in the absence of klotho, FGF23 is unable to regulate systemic phosphate homeostasis. Our in vivo observations have significant clinical implications in diseases associated with increased FGF23 activity and suggest that the functions of FGF23 can be therapeutically modulated by manipulating the effects of klotho.
Vitamin D is a multifunctional hormone that can affect many essential biological functions, ranging from the immune regulation to mineral ion metabolism. A close association between altered activity of vitamin D and vascular calcification has been reported in various human diseases, including in patients with atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Vascular calcification is a progressive disorder and is a major determinant of morbidity and mortality of the affected patients. Experimental studies have shown that excessive vitamin D activities can induce vascular calcification, and such vascular pathology can be reversed by reducing vitamin D activities. The human relevance of these experimental studies is not clear, as vitamin D toxicity is relatively rare in the general population. Contrary to the relationship between vitamin D and vascular calcification, in experimental uremic models, low levels of vitamin D were shown to be associated with extensive vascular calcification, a phenomenon that is very similar to the vascular pathology seen in patients with CKD. The current treatment approach of providing vitamin D analogs to patients with CKD often poses a dilemma, as studies linked vitamin D treatment to subsequent vascular calcification. Recent genetic studies, however, have shown that vascular calcification can be prevented by reducing serum phosphate levels, even in the presence of extremely high serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels. This article will briefly summarize the dual effects of vitamin D in vascular calcification and will provide evidence of vitamin D-dependent and -independent vascular calcification.
Thalassemias are emerging as a global public health concern. Due to remarkable success in the reduction of childhood mortality by controlling infectious diseases in developing countries, thalassemias are likely to be a major public health concern in the coming decades in South Asia. Despite the fact that Bangladesh lies in the world’s thalassemia belt, the information on different aspects (epidemiology, clinical course, mortality, complications and treatment outcomes) of thalassemias is lacking. In this comprehensive review, the aim is to to depict the epidemiological aspects of thalassemias, mutation profile and current treatment and management practices in the country by sharing the experience of dealing with 1178 cases over 2009–2014 time periods in a specialized thalassemia treatment centre. We have also discussed the preventative strategies of thalassemias from the context of Bangladesh which could be effective for other developing countries.
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