IMPORTANCE Kidney disease is a substantial worldwide clinical and public health problem, but information about available care is limited.OBJECTIVE To collect information on the current state of readiness, capacity, and competence for the delivery of kidney care across countries and regions of the world. , representing an estimated 93% (6.8 billion) of the world's population of 7.3 billion. There was wide variation in country readiness, capacity, and response in terms of service delivery, financing, workforce, information systems, and leadership and governance. Overall, 119 (95%), 95 (76%), and 94 (75%) countries had facilities for hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation, respectively. In contrast, 33 (94%), 16 (45%), and 12 (34%) countries in Africa had facilities for hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation, respectively. For chronic kidney disease (CKD) monitoring in primary care, serum creatinine with estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria measurements were reported as always available in only 21 (18%) and 9 (8%) countries, respectively. Hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and transplantation services were funded publicly and free at the point of care delivery in 50 (42%), 48 (51%), and 46 (49%) countries, respectively. The number of nephrologists was variable and was low (<10 per million population) in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and Oceania and South East Asia (OSEA) regions. Health information system (renal registry) availability was limited, particularly for acute kidney injury (8 countries [7%]) and nondialysis CKD (9 countries [8%]). International acute kidney injury and CKD guidelines were reportedly accessible in 52 (45%) and 62 (52%) countries, respectively. There was relatively low capacity for clinical studies in developing nations.CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE This survey demonstrated significant interregional and intraregional variability in the current capacity for kidney care across the world, including important gaps in services and workforce. Assuming the responses accurately reflect the status of kidney care in the respondent countries, the findings may be useful to inform efforts to improve the quality of kidney care worldwide.
The thermal conductivity of several single-wall carbon nanotubes has been calculated over a temperature range of 100-500 K using molecular dynamics simulations with the Tersoff-Brenner potential for CC interactions. In all cases, starting from similar values at 100 K, the thermal conductivities show a peaking behaviour before falling off at higher temperatures. The peak position shifts to higher temperatures for nanotubes with larger diameters and no significant dependence on the tube chirality is observed. It is shown that this phenomenon is due to the onset of Umklapp scattering, which shifts to higher temperatures for nanotubes with larger diameters.
Objective To determine the global capacity (availability, accessibility, quality, and affordability) to deliver kidney replacement therapy (dialysis and transplantation) and conservative kidney management. Design International cross sectional survey. Setting International Society of Nephrology (ISN) survey of 182 countries from July to September 2018. Participants Key stakeholders identified by ISN’s national and regional leaders. Main outcome measures Markers of national capacity to deliver core components of kidney replacement therapy and conservative kidney management. Results Responses were received from 160 (87.9%) of 182 countries, comprising 97.8% (7338.5 million of 7501.3 million) of the world’s population. A wide variation was found in capacity and structures for kidney replacement therapy and conservative kidney management—namely, funding mechanisms, health workforce, service delivery, and available technologies. Information on the prevalence of treated end stage kidney disease was available in 91 (42%) of 218 countries worldwide. Estimates varied more than 800-fold from 4 to 3392 per million population. Rwanda was the only low income country to report data on the prevalence of treated disease; 5 (<10%) of 53 African countries reported these data. Of 159 countries, 102 (64%) provided public funding for kidney replacement therapy. Sixty eight (43%) of 159 countries charged no fees at the point of care delivery and 34 (21%) made some charge. Haemodialysis was reported as available in 156 (100%) of 156 countries, peritoneal dialysis in 119 (76%) of 156 countries, and kidney transplantation in 114 (74%) of 155 countries. Dialysis and kidney transplantation were available to more than 50% of patients in only 108 (70%) and 45 (29%) of 154 countries that offered these services, respectively. Conservative kidney management was available in 124 (81%) of 154 countries. Worldwide, the median number of nephrologists was 9.96 per million population, which varied with income level. Conclusions These comprehensive data show the capacity of countries (including low income countries) to provide optimal care for patients with end stage kidney disease. They demonstrate substantial variability in the burden of such disease and capacity for kidney replacement therapy and conservative kidney management, which have implications for policy.
In response to the lockdown of Sultan Qaboos University and closure of all schools in Oman, the college of education activated an E-learning 'Emergency Remote Teaching' Plan for the Spring semester, and the student teacher practicum programme. The primary purpose of the intended paper is to highlight the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the Sultanate of Oman in general, and the education system in particular. The paper will also provide an analytic description of the college experience and lessons learnt from the impact of the pandemic on the changing teaching and learning landscape, and the diffusion and adoption of e-learning in teacher education.
BACKGROUND: In an effort to address the increasing demand for heart transplantation within the United Kingdom (UK), we established a clinical program of heart transplantation from donation after circulatory-determined death (DCD) donors in 2015. After 5 years, we report the clinical early outcomes and impact of the program. METHODS: This is a single-center, retrospective, matched, observational cohort study comparing outcomes of hearts transplanted from DCD donors from March 1, 2015 to February 29, 2020 with those from matched donation after brain death (DBD) donors at Royal Papworth Hospital (RPH) (Cambridge, UK). DCD hearts were either retrieved using thoracoabdominal normothermic regional perfusion or the direct procurement and perfusion technique. All DBD hearts were procured using standard cold static storage. The primary outcomes were recipient 30-day and 1-year survival. RESULTS: During the 5-year study, DCD heart donation increased overall heart transplant activity by 48% (79 for DCD and 164 for DBD). There was no difference in survival at 30 days (97% for DCD vs 99% for DBD, p = 1.00) or 1 year (91% for DCD vs 89% for DBD, p = 0.72). There was no difference in the length of stay in the intensive care unit (7 for DCD vs 6 for DBD days, p = 0.24) or in the hospital (24 for DCD vs 25 for DBD days, p = 0.84). CONCLUSIONS: DCD heart donation increased overall heart transplant activity at RPH by 48%, with no difference in 30-day or 1-year survival in comparison with conventional DBD heart transplantations.
BackgroundVisceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala azar) is the most serious form of human leishmaniasis, responsible for over 20,000 deaths annually, and post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a stigmatizing skin condition that often occurs in patients after successful treatment for VL. Lack of effective or appropriately targeted cell mediated immunity, including CD8+ T cell responses, underlies the progression of VL and progression to PKDL, and can limit the therapeutic efficacy of anti-leishmanial drugs. Hence, in addition to the need for prophylactic vaccines against leishmaniasis, the development of therapeutic vaccines for use alone or in combined immuno-chemotherapy has been identified as an unmet clinical need. Here, we report the first clinical trial of a third-generation leishmaniasis vaccine, developed intentionally to induce Leishmania-specific CD8+ T cells.MethodsWe conducted a first-in-human dose escalation Phase I trial in 20 healthy volunteers to assess the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of a prime-only adenoviral vaccine for human VL and PKDL. ChAd63-KH is a replication defective simian adenovirus expressing a novel synthetic gene (KH) encoding two Leishmania proteins KMP-11 and HASPB. Uniquely, the latter was engineered to reflect repeat domain polymorphisms and arrangements identified from clinical isolates. We monitored innate immune responses by whole blood RNA-Seq and antigen specific CD8+ T cell responses by IFNγ ELISPOT and intracellular flow cytometry.FindingsChAd63-KH was safe at intramuscular doses of 1x1010 and 7.5x1010 vp. Whole blood transcriptomic profiling indicated that ChAd63-KH induced innate immune responses characterized by an interferon signature and the presence of activated dendritic cells. Broad and quantitatively robust CD8+ T cell responses were induced by vaccination in 100% (20/20) of vaccinated subjects.ConclusionThe results of this study support the further development of ChAd63-KH as a novel third generation vaccine for VL and PKDL.Trial registrationThis clinical trial (LEISH1) was registered at EudraCT (2012-005596-14) and ISRCTN (07766359).
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