A computational study was performed in a two-dimensional square cavity in the presence of roughness using an algorithm based on mesoscopic method known as Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM). A single relaxation time Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model of LBM was used to perform numerical study. Sinusoidal roughness elements of dimensionless amplitude of 0.1 were located on both the hot and cold walls of a square cavity. A Newtonian fluid of the Prandtl number (Pr) 1.0 was considered. The range of the Rayleigh (Ra) number explored was from 10 3 to 10 6 in a laminar region. Thermal and hydrodynamic behaviors of fluid were studied using sinusoidal roughness elements. Validation of computational algorithm was performed against previous benchmark studies, and a good agreement was found. Average Nu (Nusselt number) has been calculated to observe the effects of the surface roughness on the heat transfer. Results showed that sinusoidal roughness elements considerably affect the thermal and hydrodynamic behaviors of fluid in a square cavity. The maximum reduction in the average heat transfer in the presence of roughness was calculated to be 23.33%.
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