Background In an era of shifting global agendas and expanded emphasis on non-communicable diseases and injuries along with communicable diseases, sound evidence on trends by cause at the national level is essential. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) provides a systematic scientific assessment of published, publicly available, and contributed data on incidence, prevalence, and mortality for a mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive list of diseases and injuries.Methods GBD estimates incidence, prevalence, mortality, years of life lost (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) due to 369 diseases and injuries, for two sexes, and for 204 countries and territories. Input data were extracted from censuses, household surveys, civil registration and vital statistics, disease registries, health service use, air pollution monitors, satellite imaging, disease notifications, and other sources. Cause-specific death rates and cause fractions were calculated using the Cause of Death Ensemble model and spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression. Cause-specific deaths were adjusted to match the total all-cause deaths calculated as part of the GBD population, fertility, and mortality estimates. Deaths were multiplied by standard life expectancy at each age to calculate YLLs. A Bayesian meta-regression modelling tool, DisMod-MR 2.1, was used to ensure consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, excess mortality, and cause-specific mortality for most causes. Prevalence estimates were multiplied by disability weights for mutually exclusive sequelae of diseases and injuries to calculate YLDs. We considered results in the context of the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and fertility rate in females younger than 25 years. Uncertainty intervals (UIs) were generated for every metric using the 25th and 975th ordered 1000 draw values of the posterior distribution.Findings Global health has steadily improved over the past 30 years as measured by age-standardised DALY rates. After taking into account population growth and ageing, the absolute number of DALYs has remained stable. Since 2010, the pace of decline in global age-standardised DALY rates has accelerated in age groups younger than 50 years compared with the 1990-2010 time period, with the greatest annualised rate of decline occurring in the 0-9-year age group. Six infectious diseases were among the top ten causes of DALYs in children younger than 10 years in 2019: lower respiratory infections (ranked second), diarrhoeal diseases (third), malaria (fifth), meningitis (sixth), whooping cough (ninth), and sexually transmitted infections (which, in this age group, is fully accounted for by congenital syphilis; ranked tenth). In adolescents aged 10-24 years, three injury causes were among the top causes of DALYs: road injuries (ranked first), self-harm (third), and interpersonal violence (fifth). Five of the causes that were in the...
Background Regularly updated data on stroke and its pathological types, including data on their incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability, risk factors, and epidemiological trends, are important for evidence-based stroke care planning and resource allocation. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) aims to provide a standardised and comprehensive measurement of these metrics at global, regional, and national levels. MethodsWe applied GBD 2019 analytical tools to calculate stroke incidence, prevalence, mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), and the population attributable fraction (PAF) of DALYs (with corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals [UIs]) associated with 19 risk factors, for 204 countries and territories from 1990 to 2019. These estimates were provided for ischaemic stroke, intracerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid haemorrhage, and all strokes combined, and stratified by sex, age group, and World Bank country income level. FindingsIn 2019, there were 12•2 million (95% UI 11•0-13•6) incident cases of stroke, 101 million (93•2-111) prevalent cases of stroke, 143 million (133-153) DALYs due to stroke, and 6•55 million (6•00-7•02) deaths from stroke. Globally, stroke remained the second-leading cause of death (11•6% [10•8-12•2] of total deaths) and the third-leading cause of death and disability combined (5•7% [5•1-6•2] of total DALYs) in 2019. From 1990 to 2019, the absolute number of incident strokes increased by 70•0% (67•0-73•0), prevalent strokes increased by 85•0% (83•0-88•0), deaths from stroke increased by 43•0% (31•0-55•0), and DALYs due to stroke increased by 32•0% (22•0-42•0). During the same period, age-standardised rates of stroke incidence decreased by 17•0% (15•0-18•0), mortality decreased by 36•0% (31•0-42•0), prevalence decreased by 6•0% (5•0-7•0), and DALYs decreased by 36•0% (31•0-42•0). However, among people younger than 70 years, prevalence rates increased by 22•0% (21•0-24•0) and incidence rates increased by 15•0% (12•0-18•0). In 2019, the age-standardised stroke-related mortality rate was 3•6 (3•5-3•8) times higher in the World Bank low-income group than in the World Bank high-income group, and the age-standardised stroke-related DALY rate was 3•7 (3•5-3•9) times higher in the low-income group than the high-income group. Ischaemic stroke constituted 62•4% of all incident strokes in 2019 (7•63 million [6•57-8•96]), while intracerebral haemorrhage constituted 27•9% (3•41 million [2•97-3•91]) and subarachnoid haemorrhage constituted 9•7% (1•18 million [1•01-1•39]). In 2019, the five leading risk factors for stroke were high systolic blood pressure (contributing to 79•6 million [67•7-90•8] DALYs or 55•5% [48•2-62•0] of total stroke DALYs), high bodymass index (34•9 million [22•3-48•6] DALYs or 24•3% [15•7-33•2]), high fasting plasma glucose (28•9 million [19•8-41•5] DALYs or 20•2% [13•8-29•1]), ambient particulate matter pollution (28•7 million [23•4-33•4] DALYs or 20•1% [16•6-23•0]), and smoking (25•3 million [22•6-28•2] DALYs or 17•6% [16•4-19•0]...
Background Accurate and up-to-date assessment of demographic metrics is crucial for understanding a wide range of social, economic, and public health issues that affect populations worldwide. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019 produced updated and comprehensive demographic assessments of the key indicators of fertility, mortality, migration, and population for 204 countries and territories and selected subnational locations from 1950 to 2019.Methods 8078 country-years of vital registration and sample registration data, 938 surveys, 349 censuses, and 238 other sources were identified and used to estimate age-specific fertility. Spatiotemporal Gaussian process regression (ST-GPR) was used to generate age-specific fertility rates for 5-year age groups between ages 15 and 49 years. With extensions to age groups 10-14 and 50-54 years, the total fertility rate (TFR) was then aggregated using the estimated age-specific fertility between ages 10 and 54 years. 7417 sources were used for under-5 mortality estimation and 7355 for adult mortality. ST-GPR was used to synthesise data sources after correction for known biases. Adult mortality was measured as the probability of death between ages 15 and 60 years based on vital registration, sample registration, and sibling histories, and was also estimated using ST-GPR. HIV-free life tables were then estimated using estimates of under-5 and adult mortality rates using a relational model life table system created for GBD, which closely tracks observed agespecific mortality rates from complete vital registration when available. Independent estimates of HIV-specific mortality generated by an epidemiological analysis of HIV prevalence surveys and antenatal clinic serosurveillance and other sources were incorporated into the estimates in countries with large epidemics. Annual and single-year age estimates of net migration and population for each country and territory were generated using a Bayesian hierarchical cohort component model that analysed estimated age-specific fertility and mortality rates along with 1250 censuses and 747 population registry years. We classified location-years into seven categories on the basis of the natural rate of increase in population (calculated by subtracting the crude death rate from the crude birth rate) and the net migration rate. We computed healthy life expectancy (HALE) using years lived with disability (YLDs) per capita, life tables, and standard demographic methods. Uncertainty was propagated throughout the demographic estimation process, including fertility, mortality, and population, with 1000 draw-level estimates produced for each metric. FindingsThe global TFR decreased from 2•72 (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 2•66-2•79) in 2000 to 2•31 (2•17-2•46) in 2019. Global annual livebirths increased from 134•5 million (131•5-137•8) in 2000 to a peak of 139•6 million (133•0-146•9) in 2016. Global livebirths then declined to 135•3 million (127•2-144•1) in 2019. Of the 204 countries and territories included in...
Interleukin-6 (IL-6), known as an inflammatory cytokine, can be involved in many innate and adaptive immune responses. The role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has recently received much more attention due to the spread of the virus and its pandemic potential. Cytokine storm is among the most critical pathological events in patients affected with coronaviruses (CoVs), i.e., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), and COVID-19, causing inflammation-induced lung injury and also occurring as a result of dysregulation of immune responses to the mentioned viruses. IL-6, along with some other inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1 beta (β), IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), as well as inflammatory chemokines, can significantly contribute to, fever, lymphopenia, coagulation, lung injury, and multi-organ failure (MOF). Therefore, researchers are to explore novel approaches to treat the disease through targeting of IL-6 and its receptors based on prior experience of other disorders. In this review article, the latest findings on the role of IL-6 in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, as well as therapeutic perspectives, were summarized and discussed.
scite is a Brooklyn-based organization that helps researchers better discover and understand research articles through Smart Citations–citations that display the context of the citation and describe whether the article provides supporting or contrasting evidence. scite is used by students and researchers from around the world and is funded in part by the National Science Foundation and the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the National Institutes of Health.
334 Leonard St
Brooklyn, NY 11211
Copyright © 2023 scite Inc. All rights reserved.
Made with 💙 for researchers
Part of the Research Solutions Family.