Two KISS1 mutations were identified in unrelated patients with idiopathic CPP. The p.P74S variant was associated with higher kisspeptin resistance to degradation in comparison with the wild type, suggesting a role for this mutation in the precocious puberty phenotype.
A high percentage of CYP21A2 affected alleles is detected by the 11-mutation screening study. Genotype-phenotype correlation was high, but when the phenotype is more severe than predicted by genotype, presence of two alterations in one allele should be ruled out.
The Triptorelin test had high accuracy for the differential diagnosis of CPP vs PT in girls providing a valid alternative to the classical GnRH test. This test also allowed a comprehensive evaluation of the pituitary-ovarian axis.
BackgroundIn girls with Idiopathic Central Precocious Puberty (ICPP) concern has been raised by the potential impact of GnRH-analogues (GnRHa) treatment on body weight. We evaluated the effect of GnRHa on Body Mass Index (BMI) in girls with ICPP according to weight status at diagnosis.MethodsOne hundred seventeen ICPP girls were divided according to pretreatment weight status in: normal weight (NW), overweight (OW) and obese (OB). BMI at one and two years of treatment was assessed. BMI-SDS of 60 patients who reached adult height (AH) was compared to that of 33 ICPP untreated girls.ResultsNW girls significantly increased their baseline BMI-SDS at 1 and 2 years of treatment. OW girls only had a significant increment at one year of treatment while OB girls showed no BMI-SDS change. Patients evaluated at AH (at least four years after GnRHa withdrawal) showed a significant decrease on BMI compared to baseline and a significantly lower BMI than the untreated group.ConclusionIn ICPP girls the BMI increase under GnRHa was inversely related to the pretreatment weight status. In the long term follow-up, no detrimental effect of GnRHa on body weight was observed. BMI-SDS was lower in treated than in untreated girls.
Context Gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists (GnRHa) are standard of care for central precocious puberty (CPP). A 6-month subcutaneous injection has recently been approved by Food and Drug Administration. Objective Determine efficacy, pharmacokinetics and safety of 6-month 45 mg subcutaneous leuprolide acetate for CPP. Design Phase 3 multicenter, open-label, single-arm study. Setting 25 sites in 6 countries. Subjects 64 GnRHa naive children with CPP (age: 7.5±0.1 years) received study drug: 59 completed the study. Intervention(s) 2 doses of 45 mg subcutaneous leuprolide acetate (0.375 mL) at 0 and 24 weeks, children followed for 48 weeks. Main Outcome Measure(s) Percentage of children with serum luteinizing hormone (LH) <4 IU/L 30 minutes following GnRHa stimulation at week 24. Results 54/62 (87%) children achieved post-stimulation LH <4 IU/L at week 24. 49/56 (88%) girls and 1/2 boys maintained peak LH <4 IU/L at week 48. Mean growth velocity decreased from 8.9 cm/year at week 4 to 6.0 cm/year at week 48. Mean bone age was advanced 3.0 years beyond chronological age at screening and 2.7 years at week 48. Breast pubertal stage regressed or was stable in 97% of girls and external genitalia development regressed in both boys. Adverse events were mild and did not cause treatment discontinuation. Conclusions A small volume of 45 mg subcutaneous leuprolide acetate administered at a 6-month interval effectively suppressed pubertal hormones and stopped or caused regression of pubertal progression. This long-acting GnRHa preparation of leuprolide acetate is a new effective and well-tolerated therapy for children with CPP.
Context Loss-of-function mutations of makorin RING finger protein 3 (MKRN3) are the most common monogenic cause of familial central precocious puberty (CPP). Objective To describe the clinical and hormonal features of a large cohort of patients with CPP due to MKRN3 mutations and compare the characteristics of different types of genetic defects. Methods Multiethnic cohort of 716 patients with familial or idiopathic CPP screened for MKRN3 mutations using Sanger sequencing. A group of 156 Brazilian girls with idiopathic CPP (ICPP) was used as control group. Results Seventy-one patients (45 girls and 26 boys from 36 families) had 18 different loss-of-function MKRN3 mutations. Eight mutations were classified as severe (70% of patients). Among the 71 patients, first pubertal signs occurred at 6.2 ± 1.2 years in girls and 7.1 ± 1.5 years in boys. Girls with MKRN3 mutations had a shorter delay between puberty onset and first evaluation and higher follicle-stimulating hormone levels than ICPP. Patients with severe MKRN3 mutations had a greater bone age advancement than patients with missense mutations (2.3 ± 1.6 vs 1.6 ± 1.4 years, P = .048), and had higher basal luteinizing hormone levels (2.2 ± 1.8 vs 1.1 ± 1.1 UI/L, P = .018) at the time of presentation. Computational protein modeling revealed that 60% of the missense mutations were predicted to cause protein destabilization. Conclusion Inherited premature activation of the reproductive axis caused by loss-of-function mutations of MKRN3 is clinically indistinct from ICPP. However, the type of genetic defect may affect bone age maturation and gonadotropin levels.
Gonadotroph adenomas are difficult to diagnose since they usually show as nonsecreting tumors or produce biologically inactive hormones with no clinical effects and classically grow silent until neurological symptoms appear. Presentation with bilateral ovarian masses and ovarian hyperstimulation has been described in fertile years. Gonadotroph adenomas are extremely infrequent in children. We report a 13-year-old postmenarcheal girl referred to our hospital with 6 months of amenorrhea, abdominal palpable mass presumptive of bilateral ovarian tumors. The patient had Tanner IV breast development and a large abdominal mass occupying the whole low hemiabdomen. Laboratory evaluation revealed high estradiol levels with suppressed luteinizing hormone and inappropriately high follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Pelvic ultrasound showed enlarged ovaries containing multiple giant cysts. An MRI revealed a pituitary macroadenoma. Transsphenoidal resection of the adenoma was performed with an uneventful postoperative course. Immunohistologic examination only showed staining for FSH, thus confirming pituitary secreting FSH adenoma. Hormonal laboratory levels normalized and ovarian masses showed marked involution 1 month after surgery. Three months later the MRI showed tumor disappearance. Conclusion: The presence of bilateral ovarian tumors requires a careful endocrine and neurological evaluation to exclude the presence of an FSH-producing tumor in order to avoid unnecessary ovarian surgery.
Some adolescents with a history of idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) develop hyperandrogenism. Hypothesis: Luteinizing hormone (LH) hypersecretion could be a common mechanism underlying ICPP and polycystic ovary syndrome. Aim: To explore the GnRH-LH axis in those patients. Design: To compare overnight LH secretion in 7 healthy adolescents (CG) with that in patients with prior ICPP [5 with (CPPA) and 7 without (CPPB) hyperandrogenism]. To analyze daytime LH secretion in those patients. Methods: LH secretion was quantified by immunofluorometry and deconvolution analysis. Results: Nighttime mean LH (international units/liter) was higher in CPPA (6.9 ± 1.5) than in CPPB (3.2 ± 0.4, p < 0.05) and CG (2.9 ± 0.4, p < 0.01). Deconvolution analysis revealed a greater nighttime LH frequency (pulses/hour) both in CPPA (0.91 ± 0.06, p < 0.01) and CPPB (0.74 ± 0.02, p < 0.05) than in CG (0.45 ± 0.07). CPPA patients maintained a higher frequency than CPPB. Pulsatile LH production was greater in CPPA than in CG (50 ± 12 vs. 18 ± 3 IU/l/day, p < 0.01). Daytime mass of LH released per burst and pulsatile production rate were significantly greater in CPPA than in CPPB patients. Conclusions: Hyperandrogenic adolescents with prior ICPP show increased pulsatile LH secretion. Augmentation of LH pulsatility may predispose to or cause hyperandrogenism in some adolescents with a history of precocious puberty.
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