Este trabalho descreve os imaturos de Caligo teucer (Linnaeus, 1758). O material criado é proveniente do nordeste do Brasil. As larvas se alimentam de folhas de bananeira Musa spp. (Musaceae), Heliconia bihai (Heliconiaceae), Canna indica (Cannaceae) e Alpinia purpurata (Zingiberaceae).
Abstract:Comprising a natural reserve with 359 ha of "montane forest" inserted on the Brazilian semi-arid, the Parque Ecológico João Vasconcelos Sobrinho (PEJVS), locally known as "Brejo dos Cavalos" is currently under high anthropogenic pressure. A list of 197 species of butterflies belonging to six families is presented, being 59 species of Hesperiidae, 4 of Papilionidae, 18 of Pieridae, 17 of Lycaenidae, 12 of Riodinidae and 87 of Nymphalidae. The butterfly community was composed mainly by widespread species commonly found in open habitats. There were also many species typical of forested areas such as Scada karschina delicata Talbot, 1932 (Danainae: Ithomiini), which is an endangered butterfly.
16.9 km 2 is the main island (Lopes and Ulbrich, 2015), and the remaining area is distributed among 20 smaller islands, of which Rata Island is the largest with 0.8 km 2. The archipelago has suffered major ecological disturbances due to several human interventions. In 1737, fortifications were built, and the archipelago was transformed into a penal colony for almost 200 years. During this period, a large part of the native vegetation was devastated while exotic plants and animals were introduced to serve as food (Teixeira et al., 2003; Serafini et al., 2010). The human population in the archipelago increased significantly in 1942 through military occupation (i.e., World War II). Afterwards, significant changes were observed in the archipelago due to: • Several insecticide applications campaigns (i.e., DDT) for mosquito-control; • Wild animal introductions, such as the Teju lizard (Salvator merianae Duméril & Bibron) and the Mocó cavy (Kerodon rupestris Wied-Neuwied); • Release of birds seized in trade fairs and public markets of Recife (i.e., Saffron finch (Sicalis flaveola (Linnaeus)), House Sparrow (Passer domesticus (Linnaeus)), and the White-bellied seedeater (Sporophila leucoptera (Vieillot));
-Immature stages of Memphis moruus stheno (Prittwittz) were subject of a behavior, biological and morphological study. The morphological study was carried out through observation by stereoscopic microscopy with camera lucida and micrometric lens attached for illustrations and measurements, respectively; and scanning electron microscopy for ultrastructural analysis. Behavioral data were obtained through direct observation in the fi eld and laboratory. Eggs were laid on the underside of leaves of two Lauraceae species. The fi rst to third instars build frass chains, the fourth and the fi fth instars build a conical shelter using a single leaf of the host plant. Before pupation, larvae bend its body ventrally and the pupae are incapable of movement. Descriptions, illustrations and photographs of egg, all fi ve instars and pupa are given. The cephalic morphology and chaetotaxy of fi rst instar were described and illustrated. Results are compared with other Charaxinae immature stages. A variação existente em certas estruturas de insetos indica que estudos do ciclo de vida podem ser importantes para a defi nição de problemas de sistemática em adição a estudos de morfologia pura (Freitas 1991). Imaturos são fontes valiosas de informações para a sistemática de Lepidoptera (Scoble 1992, Freitas & Brown Jr 2004 e muito ainda é necessário saber sobre estes aspectos antes que seja possível resolver a sistemática de Anaeini (Rydon 1971). O presente estudo apresenta aspectos da biologia e descreve detalhadamente a morfologia externa dos imaturos e a quetotaxia da larva de primeiro ínstar de M. moruus stheno.
The identification of factors responsible for the population dynamics is fundamental for pest management, since losses can reach 18% of annual production. Besides regular seasonal environmental factors and crop managements, additional supra-annual meteorological phenomena can also affect population dynamics, although its relevance has been rarely investigated. Among crop pests, Spodoptera stands out due to its worldwide distribution, high degree of polyphagy, thus causing damages in several crops in the world. Aiming to distinguish the relevance of different factors shaping population dynamics of Spodoptera in an ecosystem constituted of dry and rainy seasons, the current study used circular statistics to identify phenological patterns and test if its population fluctuation is driven by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect, seasonal meteorological parameters, and/or host plant availability. Samplings were done in an intercropping system, in the Brazilian Savanna, during the new moon cycles between July/2013 and June/2016. Species were recorded all year round, but demonstrated differently non-uniform distribution, being concentrated in different seasons of the year. Population fluctuations were mostly affected by the ENSO intensity, despite the contrasting seasonal meteorological variation or host plant availability in a 400-m radius. Studies involving the observation of supra-annual phenomena, although rare, reach similar conclusions in relation to Neotropical insect fauna. Therefore, it is paramount to have long-term sampling studies to obtain a more precise response of the pest populations towards the agroecosystem conditions.
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