Filaggrin is a structural protein that is fundamental in the development and maintenance of the skin barrier. The function of filaggrin and its involvement in various cutaneous and extracutaneous disorders has been the subject of considerable research in recent years. Mutations in FLG, the gene that encodes filaggrin, have been shown to cause ichthyosis vulgaris, increase the risk of atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases, and exacerbate certain conditions. The present article reviews the current knowledge on the role of filaggrin in the skin barrier, FLG mutations, and the consequences of filaggrin deficiency.
The rosette structure is a dermoscopic sign visible under polarized light, characterized by 4 white points arranged as a 4-leaf clover. It has been mainly described in facial sun-damaged skin and actinic keratosis, although it has also been found in squamous and basal cell carcinomas, and in 2 cases of hypomelanotic melanomas. We describe 2 different cases of pigmented incipient melanomas with the presence of multiple rosettes and shiny white structures on dermoscopy. In the reflectance confocal microscope they exhibit a disarranged epidermal architecture with atypical and dendritic cells. Histological examination showed focal hyperkeratosis and a normal corneal layer presented alternatively. To our knowledge this is the first description of rosette structures in pigmented melanomas. Based on a proper dermoscopic- confocal-histopathological correlation, we hypothesize that rosettes could correspond to optic phenomena due to changes in the superficial epidermal reaction and in the acrosyringia.
Inverted follicular keratosis (IFK) is a rare benign tumor which usually appears as a firm papule on the face. The diagnosis is generally made by histopathology because the clinical appearance is difficult to differentiate from other lesions. Dermoscopic features of IFK have not been established to date. Herein we describe the dermoscopic findings of 4 cases of IFK. Radial peripheral hairpin vessels surrounded by a whitish halo arranged around a central white-yellowish amorphous area were observed in 3 cases, and glomerular vessels were present in the central area of one of them. The fourth case also presented a central white amorphous area but showed arborizing vessels. Reflectance confocal microscopy (available in 1 case) revealed a broadened honeycomb pattern, epidermal projections and hairpin and glomerular vessels. To our knowledge this is the first case series describing the dermoscopic features of inverted follicular keratosis and the first confocal microscopy description of this entity.
Omalizumab is a monoclonal anti-IgE antibody approved for the treatment of severe allergic asthma. There is increasing evidence in the literature of its usefulness in chronic urticaria. Herein, we report a retrospective case series of 15 patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria treated with omalizumab. We reviewed their medical records to assess the improvement achieved after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Complete response was defined as symptom disappearance that could be followed by discontinuation of antihistamines, and partial response as symptom improvement, but with symptom worsening when attempting to discontinue antihistamines. After 3 months of treatment, 12 patients responded, with partial response in 9 and complete response in 3. At 6 months, 8 of 10 patients continuing on omalizumab had a complete response and 2 a partial response. The results of the present retrospective series show the effectiveness of omalizumab in most treated patients, which is consistent with other recently published series and studies. These data support its role in the management of patients with chronic urticaria refractory to conventional treatments.
We report on a child with a divided or kissing nevus of the penis with benign symmetric globular pattern on dermoscopic examination that evolved into a globular-reticular pattern after 1 year of follow-up. Divided nevus of the penis is exceedingly rare, with only four cases with dermoscopic findings reported to date. Dermoscopy seems to be useful when deciding on the most appropriate management of these cases.
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