Methylation of the promoter region of the four genes in patients with stage I NSCLC treated with curative intent by means of surgery is associated with early recurrence.
Aim To assess the validity of glycated haemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) as a screening tool for early detection of Type 2 diabetes.Methods Systematic review of primary cross-sectional studies of the accuracy of HbA 1c for the detection of Type 2 diabetes using the oral glucose tolerance test as the reference standard and fasting plasma glucose as a comparison.Results Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. At certain cut-off points, HbA 1c has slightly lower sensitivity than fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in detecting diabetes, but slightly higher specificity. For HbA 1c at a Diabetes Control and Complications Trial and UK Prospective Diabetes Study comparable cut-off point of ≥ 6.1%, the sensitivity ranged from 78 to 81% and specificity 79 to 84%. For FPG at a cut-off point of ≥ 6.1 mmol/l, the sensitivity ranged from 48 to 64% and specificity from 94 to 98%. Both HbA 1c and FPG have low sensitivity for the detection of impaired glucose tolerance (around 50%).Conclusions HbA 1c and FPG are equally effective screening tools for the detection of Type 2 diabetes. The HbA 1c cut-off point of > 6.1% was the recommended optimum cut-off point for HbA 1c in most reviewed studies; however, there is an argument for population-specific cut-off points as optimum cut-offs vary by ethnic group, age, gender and population prevalence of diabetes. Previous studies have demonstrated that HbA 1c has less intra-individual variation and better predicts both micro-and macrovascular complications. Although the current cost of HbA 1c is higher than FPG, the additional benefits in predicting costly preventable clinical complications may make this a cost-effective choice.Diabet. Med. 24, 333-343 (2007) There is no consensus on the most accurate screening test for detection of diabetes. The most widely used screening tests include the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test and the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Both these tests involve measurement of blood glucose. However, the measurement of both OGTT and FPG require patients to fast overnight for at least 8 h and confirmation of diagnosis using FPG requires the test to be repeated at least twice. Furthermore, studies have shown that the sensitivity of FPG for diabetes diagnosis is not as high as expected, with nearly one-third of individuals with diabetes remaining undetected . OGTT is also costly, time-consuming and labour intensive and has low reproducibility that can add confusion and uncertainty to the confirmation of diabetes diagnoses . The accuracy of FPG and OGTT may be reduced by patient non-adherence to fasting, laboratory error and/or use of certain medications .The glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) test has been suggested as an alternative screening test for Type 2 diabetes. HbA 1c levels represent a 2 -3-month average of blood glucose concentrations. The accuracy of HbA 1c analysis may be influenced by the presence of haemoglobinopathy or renal failure, as well as laboratory error and/or use of certain medications , but, compared with the OGTT, HbA 1c measur...
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most fatal human malignancies, but the molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis remain unclear. Although p53 mutations are frequently observed in Asian HCC, it is not a common event in Western HCC. Recent studies suggest that tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) can also be silenced through epigenetic disruption, such as promoter CpG island methylation, during carcinogenesis. To further understand the molecular mechanism of hepatocarcinogenesis, we have investigated the promoter methylation status of nine TSGs (SOCS-1, GSTP, APC, E-cadherin, RAR-␤, p14, p15, p16, and p73) in 51 cases of HCC using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction. We found that 82% of HCCs had methylation of at least one TSG promoter. The most frequently methylated TSGs in HCC were: SOCS-1 (65%), GSTP (54%), APC (53%), E-cadherin (49%), and p15 (49%). Methylation of SOCS-1, GSTP, APC, E-cadherin, and p15 was more frequent in HCC than in nontumor liver (P < 0.05). Methylation of SOCS-1, GSTP, and p15 was also significantly more frequent in HCC than cirrhotic liver (P < 0.05). Although methylation of one or two genes could be seen in both nontumor and cirrhotic livers, 53% of the HCC cases had three or more TSG promoters methylated, in comparison to 0% in nontumor liver and 13% in cirrhosis (P ؍ 0.001). Methylation of SOCS-1, APC, and p15 was more frequently seen in hepatitis C virus-positive HCC than hepatitis C virus/ hepatitis B virus-negative HCC. Our data suggest that promoter hypermethylation of TSGs is a common event in HCC and may play an important role in hepatocarci-
Cancer cells have aberrant patterns of DNA methylation including hypermethylation of gene promoter CpG islands and global demethylation of the genome. Genes that cause familial cancer, as well as other genes, can be silenced by promoter hypermethylation in sporadic tumors, but the methylation of these genes in tumors from kindreds with inherited cancer syndromes has not been well characterized. Here, we examine CpG island methylation of 10 genes (hMLH1, BRCA1, APC, LKB1, CDH1, p16(INK4a), p14(ARF), MGMT, GSTP1 and RARbeta2) and 5-methylcytosine DNA content, in inherited (n = 342) and non-inherited (n = 215) breast and colorectal cancers. Our results show that singly retained alleles of germline mutated genes are never hypermethylated in inherited tumors. However, this epigenetic change is a frequent second "hit", associated with the wild-type copy of these genes in inherited tumors where both alleles are retained. Global hypomethylation was similar between sporadic and hereditary cases, but distinct differences existed in patterns of methylation at non-familial genes. This study demonstrates that hereditary cancers "mimic" the DNA methylation patterns present in the sporadic tumors.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells often invade the portal venous system and subsequently develop into portal vein tumour thrombosis (PVTT). Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been associated with HCC, but a comprehensive analysis of their specific association with HCC metastasis has not been conducted. Here, by analysing 60 clinical samples' RNA-seq data from 20 HCC patients, we have identified and characterized 8,603 candidate lncRNAs. The expression patterns of 917 recurrently deregulated lncRNAs are correlated with clinical data in a TCGA cohort and published liver cancer data. Matched array data from the 60 samples show that copy number variations (CNVs) and alterations in DNA methylation contribute to the observed recurrent deregulation of 235 lncRNAs. Many recurrently deregulated lncRNAs are enriched in co-expressed clusters of genes related to cell adhesion, immune response and metabolic processes. Candidate lncRNAs related to metastasis, such as HAND2-AS1, were further validated using RNAi-based loss-of-function assays. Thus, we provide a valuable resource of functional lncRNAs and biomarkers associated with HCC tumorigenesis and metastasis.
The activation of the APC/b-catenin signalling pathway due to b-catenin mutations has been implicated in the development of a subset of endometrial carcinomas (ECs). However, up to 25% of ECs have b-catenin nuclear accumulation without evidence of b-catenin mutations, suggesting alterations of other molecules that can modulate the Wnt pathway, such as APC, g-catenin, AXIN1 and AXIN2. We investigated the expression pattern of b-and g-catenin in a group of 128 endometrial carcinomas, including 95 endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (EECs) and 33 non-endometrioid endometrial carcinomas (NEECs). In addition, we evaluated the presence of loss of heterozygosity and promoter hypermethylation of the APC gene and mutations in the APC, b-and g-catenin, AXIN1, AXIN2, and RAS genes, and phospho-Akt expression. No APC mutations were detected but LOH at the APC locus was found in 24.3% of informative cases. APC promoter 1A hypermethylation was observed in 46.6% of ECs, and was associated with the endometrioid phenotype (P=0.034) and microsatellite instability (P=0.008). Neither LOH nor promoter hypermethylation of APC was associated with nuclear catenin expression. Nuclear b-catenin expression was found in 31.2% of EECs and 3% of NEECs (P=0.002), and was significantly associated with b-catenin gene exon 3 mutations (P50.0001). b-catenin gene exon 3 mutations were associated with the endometrioid phenotype, and were detected in 14 (14.9%) EECs, but in none of the NEECs (P=0.02). g-catenin nuclear expression was found in 10 ECs; it was not associated with the histological type but was associated with more advanced stages (P=0.042). No mutations in g-catenin, AXIN1 and 2 genes were detected in this series. Neither RAS mutations nor phospho-Akt expression, which were found in 16 and 27.6% of the cases, respectively, were associated with bcatenin nuclear expression. Our results demonstrated a high prevalence of alterations in molecules of the APC/ b-catenin pathway, but only mutations in b-catenin gene are associated with aberrant nuclear localization of bcatenin.
Recent studies indicate that tumor suppressor genes can be epigenetically silenced through promoter hypermethylation. To further understand epigenetic alterations in cholangiocarcinoma, we have studied the methylation profiles of 12 candidate tumor suppressor genes (APC, E-cadherin/CDH1, MGMT, RASSF1A, GSTP, RAR-b, p14 ARF , p15 INK4b, p16 INK4a, p73, hMLH1 and DAPK) in 72 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, including equal number cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. A total of 10 cases of benign biliary epithelia were included as controls. The methylation status of tumor suppressor genes was analyzed using methylation-specific PCR. We found that 85% of all cholangiocarcinomas had methylation of at least one tumor suppressor gene. The frequency of tumor suppressor gene methylation in cholangiocarcinoma was:and DAPK (3%). Although single tumor suppressor gene methylation can be seen in benign biliary epithelium, methylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes is only seen in cholangiocarcinoma. About 70% (50/72) of the cholangiocarcinomas had three or more tumor suppressor genes methylated and 52% (38/72) of cases had four or more tumor suppressor genes methylated. Concerted methylation of multiple tumor suppressor genes was closely associated with methylation of RASSF1A, p16 and/or hMHL1. Methylation of RASSF1A was more common in extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma than intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (83 vs 47%, P ¼ 0.003) while GSTP was more frequently seen in intrahepatic compared to extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (31 vs 6%, P ¼ 0.012). Our study indicates that methylation of promoter CpG islands of tumor suppressor genes is a common epigenetic event in cholangiocarcinoma. Based on distinct methylation profiles, intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma are two closely related but biologically unique neoplastic processes. Taking advantage of the unique concurrent methylation profile of multiple genes in cholangiocarcinoma may facilitate the distinction of cholangiocarcinoma from benign biliary epithelium in clinical settings.
BackgroundMicroRNAs are short regulatory RNAs that negatively modulate protein expression at a post-transcriptional and/or translational level and are deeply involved in the pathogenesis of several types of cancers. Specifically, microRNA-221 (miR-221) is overexpressed in many human cancers, wherein accumulating evidence indicates that it functions as an oncogene. However, the function of miR-221 in human osteosarcoma has not been totally elucidated. In the present study, the effects of miR-221 on osteosarcoma and the possible mechanism by which miR-221 affected the survival, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance of osteosarcoma were investigated.Methodology/Principal FindingsReal-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed miR-221 was significantly upregulated in osteosarcoma cell lines than in osteoblasts. Both human osteosarcoma cell lines SOSP-9607 and MG63 were transfected with miR-221 mimic or inhibitor to regulate miR-221 expression. The effects of miR-221 were then assessed by cell viability, cell cycle analysis, apoptosis assay, and cisplatin resistance assay. In both cells, upregulation of miR-221 induced cell survival and cisplatin resistance and reduced cell apoptosis. In addition, knockdown of miR-221 inhibited cell growth and cisplatin resistance and induced cell apoptosis. Potential target genes of miR-221 were predicted using bioinformatics. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay and western blot confirmed that PTEN was a direct target of miR-221. Furthermore, introduction of PTEN cDNA lacking 3′-UTR or PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abrogated miR-221-induced cisplatin resistance. Finally, both miR-221 and PTEN expression levels in osteosarcoma samples were examined by using real-time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. High miR-221 expression level and inverse correlation between miR-221 and PTEN levels were revealed in osteosarcoma tissues.Conclusions/SignificanceThese results for the first time demonstrate that upregulation of miR-221 induces the malignant phenotype of human osteosarcoma whereas knockdown of miR-221 reverses this phenotype, suggesting that miR-221 could be a potential target for osteosarcoma treatment.
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