Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) is one of the most promising hardware features that can be utilized to improve system security. Ring Oscillator (RO) PUF captures the delay difference of a pair or a group of ROs introduced during fabrication process and defines PUF secrecy based on such difference. In this paper, we propose a framework to build RO PUF at inverter level, instead of RO level. This provides us the flexibility in choosing whether an inverter should be included in the RO-PUF and hence improve the security and reliability of RO PUF secrecy and reduce its hardware cost. Experimental results demonstrate that the PUF secrecy generated by our configurable RO PUFs is random (by passing the NIST randomness test) and unique from chip to chip. Our approach is more reliable against voltage and temperature variation than the original RO PUF and is 4X more hardware efficient than the robust 1-out-of-8 RO PUF.
Circuit obfuscation techniques have been proposed to conceal circuit's functionality in order to thwart reverse engineering (RE) attacks to integrated circuits (IC). We believe that a good obfuscation method should have low design complexity and low performance overhead, yet, causing high RE attack complexity. However, existing obfuscation techniques do not meet all these requirements. In this paper, we propose a polynomial obfuscation scheme which leverages special designed multiplexers (MUXs) to replace judiciously selected logic gates. Candidate to-be-obfuscated logic gates are selected based on a novel gate classification method which utilizes IC topological structure information. We show that this scheme is resilient to all the known attacks, hence it is secure. Experiments are conducted on ISCAS 85/89 and MCNC benchmark suites to evaluate the performance overhead due to obfuscation.
The interfacial charge phenomenon of MgO/low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and SiO2/LDPE nanocomposites was measured by synchrotron radiation small-angle X-ray scattering. Based on the Porod theory, the Porod curve of SiO2/LDPE nanocomposite shows negative divergence but the LDPE and MgO/LDPE do not, which reveals that interfacial charge may exist in the SiO2/LDPE nanocomposite. The DC dielectric properties of the nanocomposites are closely related to the interfacial charge. Experimental results show that the SiO2/LDPE nanocomposite has lower DC conductivity, less space charge, and higher DC breakdown strength than the MgO/LDPE nanocomposite. It is thought that the interfacial charge has a positive effect on the DC dielectric performance of nanocomposites, and the mechanism could be attributed to the scattering effects of the interfacial charge on the carrier migration. There is no obvious interfacial charge in the MgO/LDPE nanocomposite, but it still has excellent DC dielectric properties compared with LDPE, which indicates that the interfacial charge is not the only factor affecting the dielectric properties; the dipole interface layer and the reduction of free volume can also inhibit the migration of carriers and decrease electrons free path, improving the dielectric performance.
Microgravity has been previously demonstrated to induce skeletal muscle atrophy, loss of muscle force and disorders in myogenesis and metabolism. Current pharmacological strategies exhibit poor efficacy. Bu Zhong Yi Qi decoction (BZ) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine decoction used for myasthenia gravis. In the present study, its effect on unloading induced muscle atrophy was investigated. The mousetail suspension model was used to simulate weightlessness induced muscle atrophy. The results indicated that BZ could significantly protect muscles from simulated weightlessness-induced atrophy. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, drugCIPHER-CS methods were introduced to predict its potential targets, significantly enriched pathways and biological processes. The results demonstrated that the calcium signaling pathway, citrate cycle, biosynthetic and lipid metabolic process are affected by BZ. Among the targets, nuclear receptor corepressor 1 (NCoR1) is one of the most important proteins involved in myogenesis and metabolism. The results indicated that BZ significantly downregulated NCoR 1 expression, and further induced muscle differentiation and metabolism by regulating NCoR1-associated gene expression in vivo and in vitro. In summary, the present study indicated that may be effective in combating weightlessness-induced muscle atrophy. Combined with bioinformatics, the underlying mechanism for this decoction was investigated, which provided an improved understanding of this decoction.
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