Sports and physical activity are widely recommended, both as guidelines and in clinical practice, because of their broad range of positive effects on health, depression, anxiety, and psychological well-being. While several studies have examined the anti-depressive and anxiolytic effects of physical activity in clinical populations, and fewer studies have focused on the nonclinical populations, the relationship between tennis and well-being has not been clearly investigated. This study was carried out with 76 student volunteers from Kocaeli University (Turkey) who had chosen tennis lessons as their University. The tennis exercise program consisted of 90-minute basic tennis skills lessons for 13 weeks. At the beginning and at the end of the study, the students were given the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scales, and were evaluated by the DeWitt-Dugan Tennis Service Test, the DeWitt-Dugan Speed Test, and the Dyer Backboard Tennis Test. Upon evaluating the students’ pre- and post-test scores, we concluded that their BDI and BAI scores had significantly decreased, with the most significant decreases seen in several sub-scores of the SCL-90-R; their tennis skills, meanwhile, increased significantly. This study shows that partaking in tennis exercise once a week decreases depression and anxiety symptoms and enhances well-being in healthy young people.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the general self-efficacy beliefs of licensed swimming referees who actively serve in Turkish Swimming Federation in terms of variables age, gender, educational status, level of referee, the reason to become a referee, professional experience and satisfaction level. The population of the study is composed of a total of 450 swimming referees participating to the Swimming Referee Development Seminar in Antalya in 2016. In addition, the research sample is randomly selected by 212 swimming referees (6 FINA, 74 National and 132 Provincial referees) including 95 females and 117 males were selected in this seminar. A five-point likert-scale “General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES)”, which was developed by Sherer et al. (1982), presented by Magaletta and Oliver (1999) as 17 items and adapted into Turkish culture by Yıldırım and İlhan (2010), was used in the study as data collection tool. Necessary formal permissions were obtained from Turkish Swimming Federation for the scale applied to the referees. Descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, factor analysis, an independent samples t test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Post-Hoc test (Tukey HSD) were applied to data by using SPSS Statistics. An analysis with p<0.05 is considered statistically significant. Cronbach Alpha value was calculated as .949 for the scale. As a result of factorial analysis, two factors with an eigenvalue greater than one were obtained, and it was observed that these two factorial structures revealed 62.63% of the total variance. In addition, according to Bartlett’s test, this test was considered significant (p<0.05). As a result of the study, it was found that the swimming referees showed significant differences in terms of the variables of general self-efficacy beliefs such as level of referee, the reason to become a referee, professional experience and satisfaction level and it can be said that these variables are the determinants of the self-efficacy beliefs of swimming referees.
The aim of this study was to determine the effects of Plyometric training on vertical-horizontal jump and some motor skills for children aged 13 years who play basketball. In this study voluntary 20 male athletes playing at 23 Nisan Sports Club as aged 13 basketball team whose ages are 13,00 ± 0 (year), body weight 53,86 ± 9,31 (kg), the average size of 162,5 ± 9,68 (cm) and body indexes of 20,34 ± 2,77 kg / m2 participated. All athletes were tested on the first measurements, after randomly divided into control (n=7) and experimental (n=7) groups. 2 days/week during 8 weeks, while the control group was doing basketball training only; the experimental group performed plyometric jump work in addition to basketball technique - tactical training, in the last 15 minutes of the training. All players height, body weight, vertical jump, horizontal jump, hand grip performance and elasticity performance tests were obtained at the beginning and end of the study; by these data using SPSS 18,0 programme with 0,05 significance level, Wilcoxon within group and Mann Withney-U statistical analysis was performed. There was no statistically significant difference in all the variables p> 0.05 level between first and last measurements of the control and experimental groups. In this study, it was understood that the effect of 15-minute plyometric program in basketball technique-tactical training for 2 days/week for 8 weeks in 13 years age group basketball players, vertical-horizontal jumping, hand grip, seated reach& extended flexibility test measurements has no effects.
Aim: To examine the effects of coordination applied to 8-10 years old female athletes on tennis and some motor skills. Metodology: The athletes were randomly divided into experiment and control groups by applying Dewitt-Dugan tennis test, standing long jump, vertical jump, 20m speed, T test and square test. In the study, while the control group only participated in club training for 8 weeks, 5 days a week and 60 min.and the experimental group added coordination training education. Data was collected and entered in SPSS 22.0. Results: There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the parameters of all measurements of the experimental group in the standing long jump, vertical jump, 20m speed, t test and Dewitt-Dugan parameters and no significant change in the square test results (p>0.05). Among the final measurement values of the experimental and control groups, significant differences were found in favor of the experimental group in the values of standing long jump, vertical jump, 20m speed and Dewitt-Dugan parameters, except for the T test and the square test (p<0.05). Conclusion: It can be said that the 8-week coordination training applied to the experimental group has a positive effect on the motor characteristics and tennis skill, and specific coordination movements added to each unit training can be beneficial for the athletes. Keywords:Racket Sports, coordination, skill development, training, drills.
The aim of this study is to determine the effect of reformer pilates trainings on ITN tennis test regarding the elite women aged 16-18 years. The research is done for voluntary participation of 14 elite female tennis players, whose age of training is 10,25 ± 1,72 years and average age 17,35 ± 0,77 years, All athletes were tested on the first day, then they were randomly divided into control (n=7) and experimental (n=7) groups. 90 minutes of pilates training sessions were performed for 3 days/week during eight weeks. The experimental group applied the pilates reformer studies and participated in the team trainings of the control group. After the 8-weeks training program, the last measurements of ITN Skills test were taken from experimental&control group athletes and the results were evaluated by SPSS 22.0 statistical program at 0.05 significance level. No significant difference was found for ITN depth&strength test, vole test, service test and stellar test when the last measurement test parameters of the experimental&control group athletes were compared (p>0.05). There was a significant difference between the two groups in the ITN sensitivity&strength test analysis (p<0.05). As a result, it can be said that 8-weeks duration pilates reformer trainings have an effect on the tennis players' ability to reach the ball on time in parallel and cross-strokes and an effect to have a recovery ability to be ready for the next shot.
ÖZETBu çalışmada 12 -14 yaş arası erkek tenis sporcularında üst ekstremite direnç lastiği (Thera-Band) ile yapılan antrenmanların servis atma becerisine etkisinin tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırmaya Düzce Tenis Kulübü sporcularından 12-14 yaş ortalamasına sahip, antrenman yaşları ±3yıl olan 16 erkek sporcu gönüllü katılmıştır. Antrenmanlar öncesi ilk ölçüm sonrasında tesadüfi yöntemle deney (Tenis Direnç Grubu TDG, n=8) ve kontrol (Tenis Grubu TG, n=8) grubuna ayrılarak çalışmaya başlanmıştır. Antrenman öncesi ve sonrasında her iki gruba ITN Servis testi, dikey, yatay sıçrama, 30 sn şınav ve mekik testleri uygulanmıştır. TDG ve TG haftada 6 gün 90 dk'lık tenis antrenmanlarına devam ederken, TDG haftada 3 gün de tenis antrenmanlarının sonunda Thera-Band direnç antrenmanı uygulanmıştır. Antrenman öncesi ve sonrası veri analizi grup içi Paired Sample T test ve gruplar arası ANOVA ile analiz edilmiştir. Tüm istatistiklerde p<0,05 anlamlılık düzeyi alınmıştır. Analizler SPSS 22.0 paket programında yapılmıştır. TG grubu grup içi analiz sonucunda hiçbir parametresinde anlamlı fark bulunmazken (p>0,05), TDG grubu tüm parametrelerinde anlamlı fark tespit edilmiştir (p<0,05). TDG ve TG gruplarının son ölçüm analizi sonucunda 30 sn mekik (p=0,001) ve ITN servis testi sonucunda (p=0,018) anlamlı fark tespit edilmiştir. Her iki grubun son ölçüm fark analizi incelendiğinde de deney grubu lehine tüm ölçümlerde anlamlı fark tespit edilmiştir (p<0,05). Bu çalışmanın sonucunda, tenise özgü üst ekstremite Thera-Band direnç antrenmanlarının 30 sn mekik çekme ve ITN Servis atış becerisi üzerinde etkisi olduğu ve antrenmanlarda uygulanabilir bir yöntem olabileceği söylenebilir.In this study, the aim was to determine the effect of training of the upper extremity resistance band (Thera-Band) in the service of the male tennis athletes between 12 and 14 years of age. 16 male athletes with a mean age of 12-14 years and a training age of ± 3 years participated in the study. Before trainings, the athletes were grouped in experimental (Tennis Resistance Group TDG, n = 8) and control (Tennis Group TG, n = 8) groups randomly after the first measurement. Before and after the training, ITN service test, vertical&horizontal jump, 30 sec push-ups and 30 sec sit-up tests were applied to both groups. While TDG and TG continued tennis training for 6 days and 90 minutes/weeks, TDG was given Thera-Band resistance training at the end of tennis training 3 days/week. Pre-training and post-training data analysis was made by intragroup Pared Sample T test and intergroup ANOVA. In all statistics, p <0.05 significance level was taken. SPSS 22.0 package program was used for analysis. While no significant difference was found in any of the parameters of TG group in group analysis (p> 0.05), significant difference was found in all parameters of TDG group. The last measurement analysis of TDG and TG groups revealed a significant difference between 30 second sit-ups (p = 0.001) and ITN service test (p = 0.018). When the last measurement difference analysis o...
This study aimed to research the effect of dry-land quickness training for 14-16 years old male swimmers on 50 m freestyle swimming performance. 30 volunteer male athletes and 10 volunteer males in the same age group who do not sport participated in this study. Athletes were grouped who took swimming training as experiment1 (E1), experiment2 (E2) who took swimming & quickness training and control (C) group who did not take an exercise. Zig-zag (ZZ), Square test (ST), Illinois test (IT), and T-test were applied for quickness skills; 50 m freestyle swimming degree was computed for the swimming performance before and after the training. Findings were discussed by applying paired sample T-test for in-group, independent samples T-test and One-Way ANOVA tests were applied for intergroup comparison. There are significant differences in all the measurement parameters based on pared sample T-test analysis results (p<0.05). Also, with reference to intergroup analysis that compared E1, E2, and C groups, there are significant differences in all the parameters (p<0.05) while there is no difference between E2 and C group in ZZ, ST, K, and IT measurement parameters (p>0.05). On the other hand, there is a significant difference at 50 m freestyle swimming degree. Exercise that were applied on dry-land as an addition to swimming training have an effect on quickness and swimming performance. It can be considered to be available method for swimmers to plan their training at the appropriate time.
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