The commercial success of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) and the resulting growth in mobile data demand have urged cellular network operators to strive for new innovations. LTE in unlicensed spectrum has been proposed to allow cellular network operators to offload some of their data traffic by accessing the unlicensed 5 GHz frequency band. Currently, there are three proposed variants for LTE operation in the unlicensed band, namely LTE-U, Licensed Spectrum Access (LAA), and MulteFire. This paper provides a comparative analysis of these variants and explains the current regulations of the 5 GHz band in different parts of the world. We present the technical details of the three proposed versions and analyze them in terms of their operational features and coexistence capabilities to provide an R&D perspective for their deployment and coexistence with legacy systems.
As the most common neoplasm arising from the kidney, renal cell carcinoma (RCC) continues to have a significant impact on global health. Conventional cross-sectional imaging has always served an important role in the staging of RCC. However, with recent advances in imaging techniques and postprocessing analysis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) now has the capability to function as a diagnostic, therapeutic, and prognostic biomarker for RCC. For this narrative literature review, a PubMed search was conducted to collect the most relevant and impactful studies from our perspectives as urologic oncologists, radiologists, and computational imaging specialists. We seek to cover advanced MR imaging and image analysis techniques that may improve the management of patients with small renal mass or metastatic renal cell carcinoma.
This paper presents results of an atmospheric particulate matter (PM) monitoring and source apportionment study conducted during summer and fall 2010 in Cairo. These results are compared to those of similar studies in 1999 and 2002. Concentrations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass and their chemical constituents were determined and chemical mass balance modeling was conducted to estimate the source contributions to ambient PM. Emphasis was placed on characterizing the long-term trends in atmospheric lead (Pb) concentrations and their sources in Cairo. PM 2.5 and PM 10 concentrations were highest during fall 1999 at four of the five study sites. This was also the case for open (vegetative/trash) burning contributions, which showed a smaller increase during fall 2010. Burning of agricultural waste after the fall harvest continues to be a major source of PM in Cairo. Both PM 2.5 and PM 10 mass decreased dramatically at Shobra, an industrial site, from 1999 to 2010. A reduction of lead smelting has resulted in a decrease of ambient Pb concentrations of up to two orders of magnitude from 1999 to 2010 at Shobra, El-Zamalek, and El-Qualaly. From 1999 to 2010, the mobile source contribution has been relatively stable at most of the study sites. Future efforts to reduce ambient PM should focus on controlling emissions from motor vehicles and open burning and implementing mitigation strategies for reducing resuspended road and construction dust.
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