Twist is a key transcription activator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). It remains unclear how Twist induces gene expression. Here we reported a mechanism by which Twist recruits BRD4 to direct WNT5A expression in basal-like breast cancer (BLBC). Twist contains a “histone H4 mimic” GK-X-GK motif that is di-acetylated by Tip60. The di-acetylated Twist binds the second bromodomain of BRD4, whose first bromodomain interacts with acetylated H4, thereby constructs an activated Twist/BRD4/P-TEFb/RNA-PolII complex at the WNT5A promoter and enhancer. Pharmacologic inhibition of the Twist-BRD4 association reduced WNT5A expression and suppressed invasion, cancer stem cell (CSC)-like properties, and tumorigenicity of BLBC cells. Our study indicates that the interaction with BRD4 is critical for the oncogenic function of Twist in BLBC.
Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress damage are hallmarks of osteoarthritis (OA). Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-derived exosomes are important in intercellular mitochondria communication. However, the use of MSC exosomes for regulating mitochondrial function in OA has not been reported. This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect of MSC exosomes in a three dimensional (3D) printed scaffold for early OA therapeutics.
: We first examined the mitochondria-related proteins in normal and OA human cartilage samples and investigated whether MSC exosomes could enhance mitochondrial biogenesis
. We subsequently designed a bio-scaffold for MSC exosomes delivery and fabricated a 3D printed cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM)/gelatin methacrylate (GelMA)/exosome scaffold with radially oriented channels using desktop-stereolithography technology. Finally, the osteochondral defect repair capacity of the 3D printed scaffold was assessed using a rabbit model.
: The ECM/GelMA/exosome scaffold effectively restored chondrocyte mitochondrial dysfunction, enhanced chondrocyte migration, and polarized the synovial macrophage response toward an M2 phenotype. The 3D printed scaffold significantly facilitated the cartilage regeneration in the animal model.
: This study demonstrated that the 3D printed, radially oriented ECM/GelMA/exosome scaffold could be a promising strategy for early OA treatment.
Abstract. The total variation (TV) model is attractive for being able to preserve sharp attributes in images. However, the restored images from TV-based methods do not usually stay in a given dynamic range, and hence projection is required to bring them back into the dynamic range for visual presentation or for storage in digital media. This will affect the accuracy of the restoration as the projected image will no longer be the minimizer of the given TV model. In this paper, we show that one can get much more accurate solutions by imposing box constraints on the TV models and solving the resulting constrained models. Our numerical results show that for some images where there are many pixels with values lying on the boundary of the dynamic range, the gain can be as great as 10.28dB in peak signal-to-noise ratio. One traditional hinderance of using the constrained model is that it is difficult to solve. However, in this paper, we propose to use the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) to solve the constrained models. This leads to a fast and convergent algorithm that is applicable for both Gaussian and impulse noise. Numerical results show that our ADMM algorithm is better than some state-of-the-art algorithms for unconstrained models both in terms of accuracy and robustness with respect to the regularization parameter.
This study provides genetic evidences at the chromosome, DNA content, DNA fragment and sequence, and morphological levels to support the successful establishment of the polyploid hybrids of red crucian carp 3 blunt snout bream, which belonged to a different subfamily of fish (Cyprininae subfamily and Cultrinae subfamily) in the catalog. We successfully obtained the sterile triploid hybrids and bisexual fertile tetraploid hybrids of red crucian carp (RCC) ($) 3 blunt snout bream (BSB) (#) as well as their pentaploid hybrids. The triploid hybrids possessed 124 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and one set from BSB; the tetraploid hybrids had 148 chromosomes with two sets from RCC and two sets from BSB. The females of tetraploid hybrids produced unreduced tetraploid eggs that were fertilized with the haploid sperm of BSB to generate pentaploid hybrids with 172 chromosomes with three sets from BSB and two sets from RCC. The ploidy levels of triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids were confirmed by counting chromosomal number, forming chromosomal karyotype, and measuring DNA content and erythrocyte nuclear volume. The similar and different DNA fragments were PCR amplified and sequenced in triploid, tetraploid hybrids, and their parents, indicating their molecular genetic relationship and genetic markers. In addition, this study also presents results about the phenotypes and feeding habits of polyploid hybrids and discusses the formation mechanism of the polyploid hybrids. It is the first report on the formation of the triploid, tetraploid, and pentaploid hybrids by crossing parents with a different chromosome number in vertebrates. The formation of the polyploid hybrids is potentially interesting in both evolution and fish genetic breeding.
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